Every once in a while I talk to people about coding style and sooner or later there is discussion about public fields and getters/setters in Java. I would like to elaborate my opinion on this issue in addition to other quite well balanced articles to a broader audience.
First I want to differentiate properties of a class from other fields/member variables. Properties are fields, whose values are useful and important to clients of the class. We consciously decide to break encapsulation here and provide this data to our clients. The size of a collection may serve as a nice example. Fields on the other hand store state or dependencies our class needs to be fully operational. Datastructures like arrays, data access objects (DAOs) or some kind of notification service may serve as examples here.
The internal implementation of both, properties and fields, should never be exposed because this truely breaks encapsulation and takes away the freedom of the class implementor to change their implementation. At a later time you may decide to compute a value or read it from a database instead of storing it directly . On the other hand properties themselves may well be public and belong to the API of our class.
Now on to Java. There is no native property support in the Java language as it does not support the uniform access principle using language constructs. In other languages like Python, Ruby, Groovy or Scala you can change from direct field access to accessor methods without changing the clients, so it is no problem to expose fields (or more precisely properties) and thus make them public or protected. To gain the same degree of freedom in Java you have to emulate properties by using the getter/setter convention of Java Beans. You have to trade conciseness of public fields against this freedom and you really should do it. An IDE can generate the accessors and fold the methods away from your sight. The cost of getters/setters is really negligible.
Now we can derive the conclusions for Java programers. With each member variable you introduce you have to decide if it is a property or just some internal field. For properties you may provide getters and/or setters with appropriate visibility when needed. That means you should not provide accessor methods for all of your fields. In general you should never expose fields directly and all instance variables should be private. Not doing so will remove the freedom to change class internals without affecting the clients. Once a class with exposed internals is published as part of an API it is almost impossible to change internal design decisions.