Class names with verbs enforce the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)

When using fluent code and fluent interfaces, I noticed an increased flexibility in the code. On closer inspection, this is the effect of a well-known principle that is inherently enforced by the coding style.

I’m experimenting with fluent code for a while now. Fluent code is code that everybody can read out loud and understand immediately. I’ve blogged on this topic already and it’s not big news, but I’ve just recently had a revelation why this particular style of programming works so well in terms of code design.

The basics

I don’t expect you to read all my old blog entries on fluent code or to know anything about fluent interfaces, so I’m giving you a little introduction.

Let’s assume that you want to find all invoice documents inside a given directory tree. A fluent line of code reads like this:

Iterable<Invoice> invoices = FindLetters.ofType(

While this is very readable, it’s also a bit unusual for a programmer without prior exposure to this style. But if you are used to it, the style works wonders. Let’s see: the implementation of the FindLetters class looks like this (don’t mind all the generic stuff going on, concentrate on the methods!):

public final class FindLetters<L extends Letter> {
  private final LetterType<L> parser;

  private FindLetters(LetterType<L> type) {
    this.parser = type;

  public static <L extends Letter> FindLetters<L> ofType(LetterType<L> type) {
    return new FindLetters<L>(type);

  public Iterable<L> beneath(Directory directory) {

Note: If you are familiar with fluent interfaces, then you will immediately notice that this isn’t even a full-fledged one. It’s more of a (class-level) factory method and a single instance method.

If you can get used to type in what you want to do as the class name first (and forget about constructors for a while), the code completion functionality of your IDE will guide you through the rest: The only public static method available in the FindLetters class is ofType(), which happens to return an instance of FindLetters, where again the only method available is the beneath() method. One thing leads to another and you’ll end up with exactly the Iterable of Invoices you wanted to find.

To assemble all parts in the example, you’ll need to know that Invoice is a subtype of Letter and AllInvoices is a subtype of LetterType<Invoice>.

The magical part

One thing that always surprised me when programming in this style is how everything seems to find its place in a natural manner. The different parts fit together really well, especially when the fluent line of code is written first. Of course, because you’ll design your classes to make everything fitting. And that’s when I had the revelation. In hindsight, it seems rather obvious to me (a common occurrence with revelations) and you’ve probably already seen it yourself.

The revelation

It struck me that all the pieces that you assemble a fluent line of code with are small and single-purposed (other descriptions would be “focussed”, “opinionated” or “determined”). Well, if you obey the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP), every class should only have one responsibility and therefore only limited purposes. But now I know how these two things are related: You can only cram so much purpose (and responsibility) in a class named FindLetters. When the class name contains the action (verb) and the subject (noun), the purpose is very much set. The only thing that can be adjusted is the context of the action on the subject, a task where fluent interfaces excel at. The main reason to use a fluent interface is to change distinct aspects of the context of an object without losing track of the object itself.

The conclusion

If the action+subject class names enforce the Single Responsibility Principle, then it’s no wonder that the resulting code is very flexible in terms of changing requirements. The flexibility isn’t a result of the fluency or the style itself (as I initially thought), but an effect predicted and caused by the SRP. Realizing that doesn’t invalidate the other positive effects of fluent code for me, but makes it a bit less magical. Which isn’t a bad thing.

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