My favorite C++20 feature

As I evolved my programming style away from mutating long-lived “big” objects and structures and towards are more functional and data-oriented style based mainly on pure functions, I also find myself needing a lot more structs. These naturally occur as return types for functions with ‘richer’ output if you do not want to use std::tuple or other ad-hoc types everywhere. If you see a program as a sequence of data-transformations, I guess the structs are the immediate representations encoded in the type system.

Let my first clarify what I mean by structs, as opposed to what the language says: A type that has all public data members, obeys the rule of zero, and is valid in any configuration. A typical struct v3 { float x{},y{},z{};}; 3d vector is a struct, std::vector is not.

These types are great. You can copy them around, use them with structured binding, they correctly propagate constness, and they are a great fit to pass them through layers of functions calls. And, when used as function parameters, they are great for evolving your program over time, because you can just change the single struct, as opposed to every function call that uses this parameter combination. Or you can easily batch, or otherwise ‘delay’, calls by recording the function parameters. Just throw the parameters into a container and execute the code later.

And with C++20, they got even better, because now you can use them with my favorite new feature: designated initializers, which allows you to use the member names at the initialization site and use RAII. E.g., for a struct that symbolizes an http request: struct http_request { http_method method; std::string url; std::vector<header_entry> headers; }; You can now initialize it like this:

auto request = http_request{
  .method = http_method::get,
  .uri = "localhost:7634",
  .headers = { { .name = "Authorization", .value = "Bearer TOKEN" } },
};

You can even use this directly as a parameter without repeating the type name, de facto giving your named parameters for a pair of extra curlys:

run_request({
    .method = http_method::get,
    .uri = "localhost:7634",
    .headers = { { .name = "Authorization", .value = "Bearer TOKEN" } },
});

You can, of course, combine this named-parameter style-struct with other function parameters in your API, but like with lambdas, I think they are most readable as the last parameter. Hence, also like with lambdas, you probably never want to have more than one at each call-site. I’m very happy with this new feature and it’s already making the code using my APIs a lot more readable.

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