Add flair to your code: Code Squiggles

Wrought Iron by quadriremeFor several months now, I’m experimenting with a programming style that you might want to call “syntax aware programming”. Every coding step starts with the question “what do I want to achieve and how do I want to write it down?”. Then I proceed to write it down in this perfect manner, mostly some english sentence, and try to incrementally convert the syntax into something the java compiler stops complaining about. There’s a lot to be learnt about API design, naming and creative syntax usage this way. One thing I’ve discovered along the way are Code Squiggles.

Introduction to Code Squiggles

Code squiggles are little methods that contain no functionality, other than directly returning the single given parameter. Their purpose is to make the code more fluently readable by casual readers. Calling these methods is absolutely optional, as they offer no behaviour at runtime. But by bloating your code with these method calls, you lower the amount of syntax rules and conventions the reader has to know before being able to understand the code. The process of adding the method calls feels like adding “happy little squiggles” (I certainly miss Bob Ross!) to your code.

Adding Code Squiggles by example

Let me give you a full example how Code Squiggles can turn your boring old java code into something even non-programming readers can grasp without problems. Note that the process of transforming the code isn’t the process I initially described, but the way to deal with existing code.

The initial code fragment looks like this:


As you can see, it’s an assertion line of an unit test. We improve the readability by extracting the intent of the assertion into the called method name (it’s a normal “extract method” refactoring):

assertFileExists("0.png", filesDirectory);

Now is the time to add the first Code Squiggle:

assertFileExists("0.png", in(filesDirectory));

You’ve noticed the difference? It’s just the word “in”, but it improves the semantics of the second parameter. As I promised, Code Squiggles are methods without any functionality worth talking about:

protected VirtualFile in(VirtualFile filesDirectory) {
    return filesDirectory;

The method takes a parameter and returns it. The real “functionality” of this method lies within its name. Everything else is only necessary to overcome (or overcode) java’s shortcoming of advanced syntax definition measures.

That’s all about Code Squiggles. But it doesn’t stop here. Let’s improve the example to its final shape, when we add two squiggles:

assertFile(withName("0.png"), existsIn(filesDirectory));

Read this line out loud! And notice the subtle change in the assertion method’s name. It begins to deminish clarity without the Code Squiggles. That’s when your API begins to depend on them. But it’s still perfectly valid java code if you just omit them.

The conceptual origin of Code Squiggles clearly comes from the behaviour driven development (BDD) style of writing tests and the ScalaTest Matchers. So I can’t claim much originality or cleverness myself here. But Code Squiggles, despite this initial example, aren’t limited to test code.

Adding inline documentation with Code Squiggles

Remember the last time you needed to integrate an horrible third-party API? Probably, there was a method with seven or eight parameters and all of them were primitive ints. No matter how often you called this method, you couldn’t remember the order of these ints. That’s when Code Squiggles might help you a bit.

This is the signature of a fairly complex method:

protected int performCalculation(int value, int lowerLimit, int upperLimit, int offset) { ...

Therefore, your call isn’t very self-explanatory:

int result = performCalculation(10, 2, 23, 13);

But it might be a lot more understandable when you add some squiggles:

int result = performCalculation(value(10), lowerLimit(2), upperLimit(23), offset(13));

I won’t spell out the squiggle implementations, as they should be straight-forward. Note that the java compiler doesn’t catch up here. You can easily swap the squiggles around to obfuscate your code. All you got is read-time safety. If you want compile-time safety, you need to replace the primitives with types and probably pay for some rounds of beer for the third-party API developers to include your changes or write an adapter (“corruption layer” is my preferred term here).

Regular use of Code Squiggles

If you want to use squiggles a lot, you might think about collecting them in a dedicated class. Design them to be static and generic, and you can use them easily with static imports:

public static <T> T existsIn(T instance) {
    return instance;

But remember that there are reserved keywords in java that might hamper you a bit.


Code Squiggles are useless bloat to your code unless you value read-time safety or casual readability. They can tidy up your code to a point where method or even class names are affected to form a block of code where you only have to replace the funnier chars with blanks to obtain a paragraph of plain written english anybody can read and understand.

What are your ideas towards Code Squiggles? Have you used them on your code? Mind to share the result?

Code squiggles are little methods that contain no functionality, other than directly returning the single given parameter. Their purpose is to make the code more fluently readable by casual readers.