A tale of scrap metal code – Part III

In the first part of this tale about an examined software project, I described the initial situation and high-level observations about the project. The second part dove into the actual source code and pointed out what’s wrong on this level. This part will summarize everything and give some hints on how to avoid creating scrap metal code.

About the project

If you want to know more about the project, read the first part of this tale. In short, the project looked like a normal Java software, but unfolded into a nightmare, lacking basic requirements like tests, dependency management or continuity.

A summary of what went wrong

In short, the project failed in every respect except being reasonable functional and delivering business value to the customers. I will repeat this sentence soon, but let’s recall the worst parts again. The project had no tests. The project modularization was made redundant by circular dependencies and hardwired paths. No dependency management was in place, neither through the means of a build tool nor by manual means (like jar versions). The code was bloated and overly complex. The application’s data model was a widely distributed network of arbitrary collections with implicit connections via lookup keys. No effort was spent to grasp exception handling or multithreading. The cleverness was rather invested into wildcard usage of java’s reflection API capabilities. And when the cleverness of the developer was challenged, he resorted to code comments instead of making the code more accessible.

How can this be avoided?

First, you need to know exactly what it is you want to avoid. Let me repeat that the project was sold to happily paying customers who gained profit using it. Many software projects fail to deliver this utmost vital aspect of virtually every project. The problem with this project isn’t apparent yet, because it has a presence (and a past). It’s just that it has no future. I want to give some hints how to develop software projects with a future while still delivering business value to the customer.

Avoid the no-future trap

http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-5407438-percent-blocks.phpThe most important thing to make a project future-proof is to restrain yourself from taking shortcuts that pay off now and need to be paid back later. You might want to believe that you don’t need to pay back your technical debts (the official term for these shortcuts) or that they will magically disappear sometimes, but both scenarios are quite unlikely. If your project has any chance to keep being alive over a prolonged amount of time, the technical debts will charge interest.

Of course you can take shortcuts to meet tight deadlines or fit into a small budget. This is called prototyping and it pays off in terms of availability (“time to market”) and scope (“trial version”). Just remember that a prototype isn’t meant for production. You definitely need the extra time and/or budget to fix the intentional shortcomings in the code. You won’t feel the difference right now (hey, it works, what else should it do?), but it will return with compound interest in a few years. The project in this tale was dead after three years. The technical debt had added up beyond being repairable.

Analyzing technical debts

It’s always easy to say that you should “do it right” in the first place. What could the developer for project at hands have done differently to be better off now?

1. Invest in automated tests

When I asked why the project has no tests at all, the developer replied that “it surely would be better to have tests, yet there was no time to write them“. This statement implies that tests take more time to write than they save acting as a guideline and a safety net. And it is probably true for every developer just starting to write tests. You will feel uncomfortable, your tests will be cumbersome and everything will slow down. Until you gain knowledge and experience in writing tests. It is an investment. It will pay off in the future, not right now. If you don’t start now, there will be no future payout. And even better: now your investment, not your debt, will accumulate interest. You might get used to writing tests and start being guided by them. They will mercilessly tell you when your anticipated solution is overly complex. And they will stay around and guard your code long after you forgot about it. Tests are a precaution, not an afterthought.

2. Review and refactor your code

The project has a line count of 80,000 lines of ugly code. I’m fairly confident that it can be reduced to 20,000 lines of code without losing any functionality. The code is written with the lowest possible granularity, with higher concepts lurking everywhere, waiting to be found and exposed. Of course, you cannot write correct, concise and considerate code on your first attempt. This is why you should revisit old code in a recurring manner. If you followed advice number one and brought your tests in place, you can apply every refactoring of the book’s catalog and still be sure that you rather fixed this part instead of breaking it. Constantly reviewing and refactoring your code has the additional advantage of a code base that gets more proficient alongside yourself. There are no “dark regions” (the code to never be read or touched again, because it hurts) if you light them up every now and then. This will additionally slow you down when you start out, but put you on afterburner when you realize that you can rescue any code from rotting by applying the refactoring super-powers that you gained through pratice. It’s an investment again, aiming at midterm return of investment.

3. Refrain from clever solutions

The project of this tale had several aspects that the developer thought were “clever”. The only thing with “clever” is that it’s a swearword in software programming. Remember the clever introduction of wildcard runtime classloading to provide a “plugin mechanism”? Pure poison if you ever wanted your API to be stable and documented, just like a plugin interface should be. Magic numbers throughout your code? Of course you are smart enough to handle this little extra obfuscation. Except when you aren’t. You aren’t sure how exception handling works? Be clever and just “empty catch Exception” everywhere the compiler points you to. In this project, the developer knew this couldn’t be the right solution. Yet, he never reviewed the code when he one day knew how to handle exceptions in a meaningful manner. Let me rest my case by stating that if you write your code as clever as you can handle it, you won’t be able to read it soon, as reading code is harder than writing it.


Over the course of this tale, you learned a lot about a failed project. In this article, I tried to give you some advice (in the form of three basic rules) on how this failure could probably have been avoided. Of course, the advice isn’t complete. There is much more you could do to improve yourself and your project. Perhaps the best self-training program for developer skills is the Clean Code Developer Initiative (it’s mostly german text yet, so here is an english blog post about it), based upon the book “Clean Code” by Robert C. Martin (Uncle Bob).

Invest in the future of your project and stay clean.

A tale of scrap metal code – Part II

In the first part of this tale about an examined software project, I described the initial situation and high-level observations about the project. This part will dive into the actual source code and hopefully reveal some insights. The third and last part will summarize everything and give some hints on how to avoid creating scrap metal code.

About the project

If you want to know more about the project, read the first part of this tale. In short, the project looked like a normal Java software, but unfolded into a nightmare, lacking basic requirements like tests, dependency management or continuity.

About the developer

The developer has a job title as a “senior developer”. He developed the whole project alone and wrote every line of code. From the code, you can tell his initial uncertainty, his learning progress, some adventurous experiments and throughout every file, a general uneasiness with the whole situation. The developer actively abandoned the project after three years of steady development. From what I’ve seen, I wouldn’t call him a “senior” developer at all.

About the code

The code didn’t look very repellent at first sight. But everywhere you looked, there was something to add on the “TODO list”. Let me show you our most prominent findings:

Unassigned constructors

The whole code was littered with constructor calls that don’t store the returned new object. What’s the point in constructing another instance of you throw it away in the next moment, without ever using it? After examining these constructors, it became apparent that they only exist to perform side effects each. The new object is registered with the global data model while it’s still under construction. It was the most dreadful application of the Monostate design pattern I’ve ever seen.

Global data model

Did I just mention the global data model? At the end of the investigation, we found that the whole application state lives in numerous public static arrays, collections or maps. These data fields are accessible from everywhere in the application and altered without any protection against concurrent modifications. These global variables were placed anywhere, without necessarily being semantically associated with their enclosing class. A data model in the sense of some objects being tied together to form an instance net with higher-level structures could not be found. Instead, different lookup structures like index-based arrays and key-based maps are associated by shared keys or obscure indices. The whole arrangement of the different data pieces is implicit, you have to parse the code for every usage. Mind you, these fields are globally accessible.

Manual loop unrolling

Some methods had several hundred lines of the exact same method call over and over again. This is what your compiler does when it unrolls your foreach loops. In this code, the compiler didn’t need to optimize. To add some myth, the n-th call usually had a slight deviation from the pattern without any explanation. Whenever something could easily be repeated, the developer pasted it all over the place. Just by winding up the direct repititions again, the code migth shrink by one quarter in length.

Least possible granularity

Just by skimming over the code, you’d discover plenty of opportunities to extract methods, raising the level of abstraction in the code. The developer chose to stick with the least possible granularity, making each non-trivial code a pain to read. The GUI-related classes, using Swing, were so bloated by trivialities that even a simple dialog with two text fields and one button was represented by a massive amount of code. Sadly, the code was clearly written by hand because of all the mistakes and pattern deviations. If the code had to deal with complex data types like dates, the developer always converted them to primitive data types like int, double or long and performed the necessary logic using basic math operators.

“This code is single-threaded, right?”

Despite being a Java Swing application, the code lacked any strategy to deal with multithreading other than ignoring the fact that at least two threads would access the code. We didn’t follow this investigation path down to its probably bitter end, but we wouldn’t be surprised if the GUI would freeze up occasionally.

“Exceptions don’t happen here”

If you would run a poll on the most popular exception handling strategy for this code, it would be the classic “local catch’n’ignore”. The developer dismissed the fact that exceptions might happen and just carried on. If he was forced to catch an exception, the catch block followed immediately and was empty in most cases. Of course, the only caught exception type was the Exception class itself.

“This might be null

One recurring pattern of the developer was a constructor call, stored in a local variable and immediate null check. Look at this code sample:

try {
    SomeObject object = new SomeObject();
    if (object != null) {
} catch (Exception e) {

There is no possibility (that I know of) of object being null directly after the constructor call. If an exception is thrown in the constructor, the next lines won’t be executed. This code pattern was so prevalent in the code that it couldn’t be an accidental leftover of previous code. The accompanying effect were random null checks for used variables and return values.

Destabilized dependencies

If there is one thing that’s capable of derailing every code reader, analysis tool and justified guess, it’s wildcard use of Java’s reflection capabilities. The code for this project incorporates several dozens calls to Class.forName(), basically opening up the application for any code you want to dynamically include. The class names result from obscure string manipulation magic or straight from configuration. It’s like the evil brother of dependency injection.

Himalaya indentation

Looking at the indentation depths of the code, this wasn’t the worst I’ve ever seen. But that doesn’t mean it was pleasant. Like in Uncle Bob’s infamous “A crap odyssey”, you could navigate some classes by whitespace landscape. “Scroll down to the fifth crest, the vast valley afterwards contains the detail you want to know”.

Magic numbers

The code was impregnated with obscure numbers (like 9, 17, 23) and even more bizzare textual constants (like “V_TI_LB_GUE_AB”) that just appeared out of nowhere several times. This got so bad that the original author included lengthy comment sections on top of the biggest methods to list the most prominent numbers alongside their meanings. Converting the numbers to named constants would probably dispel the unicorns, as we all know that unicorns solely live on magic numbers(*). Any other explanation escapes my mind.

(*) On a side note, I call overly complex methods with magic numbers “unicorn traps”, as the unicorns will be attracted by the numbers and then inevitably tangled up in the complexity as they try to make their way out of the mess.


This was the list of the most dreaded findings in the source code. Given enough time, you can fix all of them. But it will be a long and painful process for the developer and an expensive investment for the stakeholder.

To give you an overall impression of the code quality, here is a picture of the project’s CrapMap. The red rectangles represent code areas (methods) that need improvements (the bigger and brighter, the more work it will take). The green areas are the “okay” areas of the project. Do you see the dark red cluster just right the middle? These are nearly a hundred complex methods with subtle differences waiting to be refactored.


In part three, I’ll try to extract some hints from this project on how to avoid similar code bases. Stay tuned.

A tale of scrap metal code – Part I

This is the beginning of a long tale about an examined software project. It is too long to tell in one blog post, so I cut it in three parts. The first part will describe the initial situation and high-level observations. The second part will dive deep into the actual source code and reveal some insights from there. The third part wraps everything together and gives some hints on how to avoid being examined with such a negative result.

First contact

We made contact with a software product, lets call it “the application”, that was open for adoption. The original author wanted to get rid of it, yet it was a profitable asset. Some circumstances in this tale are altered to conceal and protect the affected parties, but everything else is real, especially on the technical level.

You can imagine the application as being the coded equivalent to a decommissioned aircraft carrier (coincidentally, the british Royal Navy tries to sell their HMS Invincible right now). It’s still impressive and has its price, but it will take effort and time to turn it around. This tale tells you about our journey to estimate the value that is buried in the coded equivalent of old rusted steel, hence the name “scrap metal code” (and this entry’s picture).

Basic fact

Some basic facts about the application: The software product is used by many customers that need it on a daily basis. It is developed in plain Java for at least three years by a single developer. The whole project is partitioned in 6 subprojects with references to each other. There are about 650 classes with a total of 4.5k methods, consisting of 85k lines of code. There are only a dozen third-party dependencies to mostly internal libraries. Each project has an ant build script to create a deployable artifact without IDE interference. On this level, the project seems rather nice and innocent. You’ll soon discover that this isn’t the truth.

Deeper look

Read the last paragraph again and look out for anything that might alert you about the fives major failures that I’m about to describe. In fact, the whole paragraph contains nothing else but a warning. We will look at five aspects of the project in detail: continuity, modularization, size, dependencies and build process. And we won’t discover much to keep us happy. The last paragraph is the upmost happiness you can get from that project.

Feature continuity

You’ve already guessed it: Not a single test. No unit test, zero integration tests and no acceptance test other than manually clicking through the application guided by the user manual (which we only hoped would exist somewhere). No persisted developer documentation other than generated APIDoc, in which the only human-written entries were abbreviated domain specific technical terms. We could also only hope that there is a bug tracker in use or else the whole project history would be documented in a few scrambled commit messages from the SCM (one thing done right!).
The whole project was an equally distributed change risk. The next part will describe some of the inherent design flaws that prohibited changes from having only local effects. Every feature could possibly interact with every other piece of code and would probably do so if you keep trying long enough.
It’s no use ranting about something that isn’t there. Safety measures to ensure the continuity of development on the application just weren’t there. FAIL!

Project modularization

The six modules are mostly independent, but have references to types in other modules (mostly through normal java imports). This would not cause any trouble, if the structure of the references was hierarchical, with one module on top and other modules only referencing moduls “higher” in the hierarchy. Sadly, this isn’t the case, as there is a direct circular dependency between two modules. You can almost see the clear hierarchical approach that got busted on a single incident, ruining the overall architecture. You cannot use Eclipse’s “project dependencies” anymore, but have to manually import “external class folders” for all projects now. The developer has forsaken the clean and well supported approach for a supposable short-term achievement, when he needed class A of module X in the context of module Y and didn’t mind the extra effort to think about a refactoring of the type and package structure. What could have been some clicks in your IDE (or an automatic configuration) will now take some time to figure out where to import which external folder and what to rebuild first because of the cycle. FAIL!

Code size

The project isn’t giantic. Let’s do some math to triangulate our expectations a bit. One developer worked for three years to pour out nearly 90k lines of code (with build scripts and the other stuff included). That’s about 30k lines per year, which is an impressive output. He managed to stuff these lines in 650 classes, so the average class has a line count of 130 lines of code. Doesn’t fit on a screen, but nothing scary yet. If you distribute the code evenly over the methods, it’s 19 lines of code per method (and 7 methods per class). Well, there I get nervous: twenty lines of code in every method of the system is a whole lot of complexity. If a third of them are getter and setter methods, the line count rises to an average of 26 lines per method. I don’t want every constructor i have to use to contain thirty lines of code!

To be sure what code complexity we are talking about, we ran some analysis tools like JDepend or Crap4j. The data from Crap4j is very explicit, as it categorizes each method into “crappy” or “not crappy”, based on complexity and test coverage (not given here). We had over 14 percent crappy methods, in absolute numbers roughly 650 crappy methods. That is one crappy method per class. The default percentage gamut of Crap4j ends at 15 percent, the bar turns red (bad!) over 5 percent. So this code is right at the edge of insanity in terms of accumulated complexity. If you want to know more about this, look forward to the next parts of this series.

Using the CrapMap, we could visualize the numerical data to get an overview if the complexity is restricted to certain parts of the application. You can review the result as a picture here. Every cell represents a method, the green ones are okay while the red ones are not. The cell size represent the actual complexity of the method. As you can see, the “overly complex code syndrome” is typically for virtually all the code. Whenever a method isn’t a getter or setter (the really tiny dark green square cells), it’s mostly too complex. Additional numbers we get from the Crap4j metric are “Crap” and “Crap Load”, stating the amount of “work” necessary to tame a code base. Both values are very high given the class and method count.

All the numbers indicate that the code base is bloated, therefore constantly using the wrong abstraction level. Applying non-local changes to this code will require a lot of effort and discipline from an experienced developer. FAIL!

Third-party dependencies

The project doesn’t use any advanced mechanism of dependency resolution (like maven or ant ivy). All libraries are provided alongside the source code. This isn’t the worst option, given the lack of documentation.
A quick search for “*.jar” retrieves only a dozen files in all six modules. That’s surprisingly less for a project of this size. Further investigation shows some inconvenient facts:

  • Some of these libraries are published under commercial licenses. This cannot always be avoided, but it’s an issue if the project should be adopted.
  • Most libraries provide no version information. At least a manifest entry or an appended version number in the filename would help a lot.
  • Some libraries are included multiple times. They are present for every module on their own, just waiting to get out of sync. With one library, this has already happened. It’s now up to the actual classpath entry order on the user’s machine how this software will behave. The (admittedly non-present) unit tests would not safeguard against the real dependency, but the local version of the library, which could be newer or older.

As there is no documentation about the dependencies, we can only guess about their scope: Maybe the classes are required at compile time but optional at runtime? The best bet is to start with the full set and accept another todo entry on the technical debt list. FAIL!

Build scripts

But wait, for every module, there is a build script. A quick glance shows that there are in fact four build scripts for every module. All of them are very similar with minor differences like which configuration file gets included and what directory to use for a specific fileset. Nothing some build script configuration files couldn’t have handled. Now we have two dozen build scripts that all look suspiciously copy&pasted. Running one reveals the next problem: All these files contain absolute paths, as if the “works on my machine award” was still looking for a winner. When we adjusted the entries, the build went successful. The build script we had to change was a messy collection of copied code snippets (if you want to call ant’s XML dialect “code”). You could tell by the different formatting, naming and solution finding styles. But besides being horribly mangled, the build included code obfuscation and other advanced topics. Applied to the project, it guaranteed that no stacktrace from any user would ever contain useful information for anybody, including the project’s developers. FAIL!


Lets face the facts: The project behind the application fails on every aspect except delivering value to the current customers. While the latter is the most important ingredient of a successful project, it cannot be the only one and is only sustainable for a short period of time. The project suffers from the lonely superhero syndrome: one programmer knows everything (and can defend every design decision, even the ridiculous ones) and has no incentive to persist this knowledge. And the project will soon suffer from the truck factor: The superhero programmer will not be available anymore soon.


There are a lot of take-away lessons from this project, but I have to delay them until part three. In the next part, we’ll discover the inner mechanics and flaws of the code base.