Migrating from Oracle to PostgreSQL

We are maintaining several applications with a SQL-Database as our data storage. If we can decide freely, we usually opt for PostgreSQL as the database management system (DBMS). But sometimes our clients have specific requirements because they are running the services on-premises so we use our customers’ choice. SQL is SQL anyway, is it not?

No it isn’t. And this year one of our customers asked us to migrate our application from Oracle to PostgreSQL. The migration was challenging even though we are using an object-relational mapper (ORM) and the necessary changes to our application code were very limited.

In this post I want to explain the general, application-agnostic challenges of such a migration. A follow-up will cover the application- and framework-specific issues.

Why is it not easy?

Luckily, PostgreSQL supports most common SQL features of Oracle, especially sequences, PL/SQL like scripts, triggers, foreign keys etc. and all the important datatypes. So you are mostly migrating from an inferior to a more powerful solution, at least feature and capability-wise from a client perspective. Please note that I am not judging the performance, replication, clustering and other administrative features here!

Unfortunately there is no simple and powerful enough tool to simply dump the oracle database into some standard SQL text format that you could pipe into psql or use with pg_restore. In addition there is also a challenge to convert the different number-types of Oracle to sematically equivalent PostgreSQL types etc.

Another challenge is coping with the referential integrity. Especially data in complex schemas with a lot of foreign keys are harder to migrate without proper tool support as you have to figure out the correct order of tables to restore.

Nevertheless, such a migration is doable, especially if you do not have too much scripting logic in your database. And there is a free tool to help you with all this stuff called Ora2Pg.

What can Ora2Pg do for you?

It can export the full database schema including constraints, convert datatypes based on configuration provided by you and offers a basic automatic conversion of PL/SQL code to PLPGSQL. When running the migration you can interactively choose what to migrate and what to skip. That allows you to only migrate the data into a readily prepared schema, for example.

How to run Ora2Pg?

Ora2Pg is a collection of perl scripts and configuration files so you need a system capable of running these. If you do not want to mess with your whole system and install all of the dependencies I prepared a Dockerfile able to run Ora2Pg:

FROM centos:7

# Prepare the system for ora2pg 
RUN yum install -y wget
RUN wget https://yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol7 -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

COPY ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN yum install -y oraclelinux-release-el7
RUN mv /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo.disabled
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-release-el7
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-basic
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-devel
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-sqlplus

RUN yum install -y perl perl-CPAN perl-DBI perl-Time-HiRes perl-YAML perl-local-lib make gcc
RUN yum install -y perl-App-cpanminus

RUN cpanm CPAN::Config
RUN cpanm CPAN::FirstTime

ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64/lib
ENV ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64

RUN perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

COPY ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz /tmp

WORKDIR /tmp
RUN tar zxf ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz && cd ora2pg-21.1 && perl Makefile.PL && make && make install

RUN mkdir -p /migration
RUN ora2pg --project_base /migration --init_project my_project
WORKDIR /migration/my_project

# uncomment this if you have a customized ora2pg.conf
#COPY ora2pg.conf /migration/my_project/config/

CMD ora2pg -t SHOW_VERSION -c config/ora2pg.conf && ora2pg -t SHOW_TABLE -c config/ora2pg.conf\
 && ora2pg -t SHOW_REPORT --estimate_cost -c config/ora2pg.conf\
 && ./export_schema.sh && ora2pg -t INSERT -o data.sql -b ./data -c ./config/ora2pg.conf

Here are the commands and the workflow to export the oracle database using the above docker image:

docker build -t o2pg .
# this will fail initially but create the project structure and generate a default configuration file
docker run --name oracle-export o2pg
# copy the project structure to the host system
docker cp oracle-export:/migration/my_project ./my_project_migration/

Now you can edit the configuration in my_project_migration/config and copy it to the directory you have built and run the docker commands. Most importantly you have to change the connection parameters at the top of the ora2pg.conf file. When you are ready to make the first go you need to enable configuration copying in the Dockerfile and rebuild the image. Now you should get your first somehow usable export.

The most import config options we changed for our projects are:

  • Connection parameters
  • Excluded tables that you do not want to migrate
  • Deletion of the contents of the target tables
  • Conversion of some datatypes like NUMBER(*,0) to bigint and NUMBER:1 to boolean for some columns

Most of the defaults are sensible to begin with but you can tailor the export specifically to your needs. If you feel ready to try the import you can run the import using a second docker image based on the following Dockerfile-import:

FROM centos:7

# Prepare the system for ora2pg 
RUN yum install -y wget
RUN wget https://yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol7 -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

COPY ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN yum install -y oraclelinux-release-el7
RUN mv /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo.disabled
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-release-el7
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-basic
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-devel
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-sqlplus
RUN yum install -y postgresql-server

RUN yum install -y perl perl-CPAN perl-DBI perl-Time-HiRes perl-YAML perl-local-lib make gcc
RUN yum install -y perl-App-cpanminus

RUN cpanm CPAN::Config
RUN cpanm CPAN::FirstTime

ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64/lib
ENV ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64

RUN perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

COPY ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz /tmp

WORKDIR /tmp
RUN tar zxf ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz && cd ora2pg-21.1 && perl Makefile.PL && make && make install

# you need to mount the project volume to /my_project
WORKDIR /my_project

ENV pg_port=5432

CMD ./import_all.sh -d $pg_db -h $pg_host -p $pg_port -U $pg_user -o $pg_user

To run the import with your exported project run build and run the import container as follows:

docker build -t postgres-import -f Dockerfile-import .
docker run -it --rm -e pg_host=target-db.intranet -e pg_db=my_project_db -e pg_user=my_db_user -v ./my_project_migration:/my_project postgres-import

Then you can interactively provide the database password and decide which migration steps to perform.

Caveat

Depending on your schema, data and privileges in the target database it may be necessary to disable all triggers before importing and reenable them after a successful import. This can done by replacing all occurences of TRIGGER USER by TRIGGER ALL in the file data/data.sql. You may need appropriate privileges for this to work.

Final words

Such a migration is not an easy task but may be worth it in total cost of ownership and maybe developer satisfaction as Oracle has some oddities and limitations for backend developers.

I will tackle some application specific issues with such a migration in a follow-up article that we encountered when migrating our system from Oracle to PostgreSQL using the above approach and tools.

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