Packaging Java-Project as DEB-Packages

Providing native installation mechanisms and media of your software to your customers may be a large benefit for them. One way to do so is packaging for the target linux distributions your customers are running.

Packaging for Debian/Ubuntu is relatively hard, because there are many ways and rules how to do it. Some part of our software is written in Java and needs to be packaged as .deb-packages for Ubuntu.

The official way

There is an official guide on how to package java probjects for debian. While this may be suitable for libraries and programs that you want to publish to official repositories it is not a perfect fit for your custom project that you provide spefically to your customers because it is a lot of work, does not integrate well with your delivery pipeline and requires to provide packages for all of your dependencies as well.

The convenient way

Fortunately, there is a great plugin for ant and maven called jdeb. Essentially you include and configure the plugin in your pom.xml as with all the other build related stuff and execute the jdeb goal in your build pipeline and your are done. This results in a nice .deb-package that you can push to your customers’ repositories for their convenience.

A working configuration for Maven may look like this:

<build>
    <plugins>
        <plugin>
            <artifactId>jdeb</artifactId>
            <groupId>org.vafer</groupId>
            <version>1.8</version>
            <executions>
                <execution>
                    <phase>package</phase>
                    <goals>
                        <goal>jdeb</goal>
                    </goals>
                    <configuration>
                        <dataSet>
                            <data>
                                <src>${project.build.directory}/${project.build.finalName}-jar-with-dependencies.jar</src>
                                <type>file</type>
                                <mapper>
                                    <type>perm</type>
                                    <prefix>/usr/share/java</prefix>
                                </mapper>
                            </data>
                            <data>
                                <type>link</type>
                                <linkName>/usr/share/java/MyProjectExecutable</linkName>
                                <linkTarget>/usr/share/java/${project.build.finalName}-jar-with-dependencies.jar</linkTarget>
                                <symlink>true</symlink>
                            </data>
                            <data>
                                <src>${project.basedir}/src/deb/MyProjectStartScript</src>
                                <type>file</type>
                                <mapper>
                                    <type>perm</type>
                                    <prefix>/usr/bin</prefix>
                                    <filemode>755</filemode>
                                </mapper>
                            </data>
                        </dataSet>
                    </configuration>
                </execution>
            </executions>
        </plugin>
    </plugins>
</build>

If you are using gradle as your build tool, the ospackage-plugin may be worth a look. I have not tried it personally, but it looks promising.

Wrapping it up

Packaging your software for your customers drastically improves the user experience for users and administrators. Doing it the official debian-way is not always the best or most efficient option. There are many plugins or extensions for common build systems to conveniently build native packages that may easier for many use-cases.

Improving Windows Terminal

As mentioned in my earlier post about hidden gems in the Windows 10 eco system a very welcomed addition is Windows Terminal. Finally we get a well performing and capable terminal program that not only supports our beloved tabs and Unicode/UTF-8 but also a whole bunch of shells: CMD, PowerShell, WSL and even Git Bash.

See this video of a small ASCII-art code golf written in Julia and executed in a Windows Terminal PowerShell:The really curious may try running the code in the standard CMD-Terminal or the built-in PowerShell-Terminal…

But now on to some more productive tipps for getting more out of the already great Windows Terminal.

Adding a profile per Shell

One great thing in Windows Terminal is that you can provide different profiles for all of the shells you want to use in it. That means you can provide visual clues like Icons, Fonts and Color Schemes to instantly visually recognize what shell you are in (or what shell hides behind which tab). You can also set a whole bunch of other parameters like transparency, starting directory and behaviour of the tab title.

Nowadays most of this profile stuff can simply be configured using the built-in windows terminal settings GUI but you also have the option to edit the JSON-configuration file directly or copy it to a new machine for faster setup.

Here is my settings.json provided for inspiration. Feel free to use and modify it as you like. You will have to fix some paths and provide icons yourself.

Pimping it up with oh-my-posh

If that is still not enough for you there are a prompt theme engine like oh-my-posh using a command like

Install-Module oh-my-posh -Scope CurrentUser

and try different themes with Set-PoshPrompt -Theme <name>. Using your customized settings for a specific Windows Terminal profile can be done by specifying a commandline to execute expressions defined in a file:

powershell.exe -noprofile -noexit -command \"invoke-expression '. ''C:/Users/mmv/Documents/PowerShell/PoshGit.ps1

where PoshGit.ps1 contains the commands to set up the prompt:

Import-Module oh-my-posh

$DefaultUser = 'Your Name'

Set-PoshPrompt -Theme blueish

Even Microsoft has some tutorials for highly customized shells and prompts

How does my Window Terminal look like?

Because seeing is believing take a look at my setup below, which is based on the instructions and settings.json above:

I hope you will give Windows Terminal a try and wish a lot of fun with customizing it to fit your needs. I feel it makes working with a command prompt on Windows much more enjoyable than before and helps to speed you up when using many terminal windows/tabs.

A final hint

You may think, that you cannot run Windows Terminal as an administrator but the option appears if you click the downward-arrow in the start menu:

Migrating from Oracle to PostgreSQL

We are maintaining several applications with a SQL-Database as our data storage. If we can decide freely, we usually opt for PostgreSQL as the database management system (DBMS). But sometimes our clients have specific requirements because they are running the services on-premises so we use our customers’ choice. SQL is SQL anyway, is it not?

No it isn’t. And this year one of our customers asked us to migrate our application from Oracle to PostgreSQL. The migration was challenging even though we are using an object-relational mapper (ORM) and the necessary changes to our application code were very limited.

In this post I want to explain the general, application-agnostic challenges of such a migration. A follow-up will cover the application- and framework-specific issues.

Why is it not easy?

Luckily, PostgreSQL supports most common SQL features of Oracle, especially sequences, PL/SQL like scripts, triggers, foreign keys etc. and all the important datatypes. So you are mostly migrating from an inferior to a more powerful solution, at least feature and capability-wise from a client perspective. Please note that I am not judging the performance, replication, clustering and other administrative features here!

Unfortunately there is no simple and powerful enough tool to simply dump the oracle database into some standard SQL text format that you could pipe into psql or use with pg_restore. In addition there is also a challenge to convert the different number-types of Oracle to sematically equivalent PostgreSQL types etc.

Another challenge is coping with the referential integrity. Especially data in complex schemas with a lot of foreign keys are harder to migrate without proper tool support as you have to figure out the correct order of tables to restore.

Nevertheless, such a migration is doable, especially if you do not have too much scripting logic in your database. And there is a free tool to help you with all this stuff called Ora2Pg.

What can Ora2Pg do for you?

It can export the full database schema including constraints, convert datatypes based on configuration provided by you and offers a basic automatic conversion of PL/SQL code to PLPGSQL. When running the migration you can interactively choose what to migrate and what to skip. That allows you to only migrate the data into a readily prepared schema, for example.

How to run Ora2Pg?

Ora2Pg is a collection of perl scripts and configuration files so you need a system capable of running these. If you do not want to mess with your whole system and install all of the dependencies I prepared a Dockerfile able to run Ora2Pg:

FROM centos:7

# Prepare the system for ora2pg 
RUN yum install -y wget
RUN wget https://yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol7 -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

COPY ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN yum install -y oraclelinux-release-el7
RUN mv /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo.disabled
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-release-el7
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-basic
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-devel
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-sqlplus

RUN yum install -y perl perl-CPAN perl-DBI perl-Time-HiRes perl-YAML perl-local-lib make gcc
RUN yum install -y perl-App-cpanminus

RUN cpanm CPAN::Config
RUN cpanm CPAN::FirstTime

ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64/lib
ENV ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64

RUN perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

COPY ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz /tmp

WORKDIR /tmp
RUN tar zxf ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz && cd ora2pg-21.1 && perl Makefile.PL && make && make install

RUN mkdir -p /migration
RUN ora2pg --project_base /migration --init_project my_project
WORKDIR /migration/my_project

# uncomment this if you have a customized ora2pg.conf
#COPY ora2pg.conf /migration/my_project/config/

CMD ora2pg -t SHOW_VERSION -c config/ora2pg.conf && ora2pg -t SHOW_TABLE -c config/ora2pg.conf\
 && ora2pg -t SHOW_REPORT --estimate_cost -c config/ora2pg.conf\
 && ./export_schema.sh && ora2pg -t INSERT -o data.sql -b ./data -c ./config/ora2pg.conf

Here are the commands and the workflow to export the oracle database using the above docker image:

docker build -t o2pg .
# this will fail initially but create the project structure and generate a default configuration file
docker run --name oracle-export o2pg
# copy the project structure to the host system
docker cp oracle-export:/migration/my_project ./my_project_migration/

Now you can edit the configuration in my_project_migration/config and copy it to the directory you have built and run the docker commands. Most importantly you have to change the connection parameters at the top of the ora2pg.conf file. When you are ready to make the first go you need to enable configuration copying in the Dockerfile and rebuild the image. Now you should get your first somehow usable export.

The most import config options we changed for our projects are:

  • Connection parameters
  • Excluded tables that you do not want to migrate
  • Deletion of the contents of the target tables
  • Conversion of some datatypes like NUMBER(*,0) to bigint and NUMBER:1 to boolean for some columns

Most of the defaults are sensible to begin with but you can tailor the export specifically to your needs. If you feel ready to try the import you can run the import using a second docker image based on the following Dockerfile-import:

FROM centos:7

# Prepare the system for ora2pg 
RUN yum install -y wget
RUN wget https://yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol7 -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

COPY ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN yum install -y oraclelinux-release-el7
RUN mv /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo.disabled
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-release-el7
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-basic
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-devel
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-sqlplus
RUN yum install -y postgresql-server

RUN yum install -y perl perl-CPAN perl-DBI perl-Time-HiRes perl-YAML perl-local-lib make gcc
RUN yum install -y perl-App-cpanminus

RUN cpanm CPAN::Config
RUN cpanm CPAN::FirstTime

ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64/lib
ENV ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64

RUN perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

COPY ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz /tmp

WORKDIR /tmp
RUN tar zxf ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz && cd ora2pg-21.1 && perl Makefile.PL && make && make install

# you need to mount the project volume to /my_project
WORKDIR /my_project

ENV pg_port=5432

CMD ./import_all.sh -d $pg_db -h $pg_host -p $pg_port -U $pg_user -o $pg_user

To run the import with your exported project run build and run the import container as follows:

docker build -t postgres-import -f Dockerfile-import .
docker run -it --rm -e pg_host=target-db.intranet -e pg_db=my_project_db -e pg_user=my_db_user -v ./my_project_migration:/my_project postgres-import

Then you can interactively provide the database password and decide which migration steps to perform.

Caveat

Depending on your schema, data and privileges in the target database it may be necessary to disable all triggers before importing and reenable them after a successful import. This can done by replacing all occurences of TRIGGER USER by TRIGGER ALL in the file data/data.sql. You may need appropriate privileges for this to work.

Final words

Such a migration is not an easy task but may be worth it in total cost of ownership and maybe developer satisfaction as Oracle has some oddities and limitations for backend developers.

I will tackle some application specific issues with such a migration in a follow-up article that we encountered when migrating our system from Oracle to PostgreSQL using the above approach and tools.

git-submodules in Jenkins pipeline scripts

Nowadays, the source control git is a widespread tool and work nicely hand in hand with many IDEs and continuous integration (CI) solutions.

We use Jenkins as our CI server and migrated mostly to the so-called pipeline scripts for job configuration. This has the benefit of storing your job configuration as code in your code repository and not in the CI servers configuration. Thus it is easier to migrate the project to other Jenkins CI instances, and you get versioning of your config for free.

Configuration of a pipeline job

Such a pipeline job is easily configured in Jenkins merely providing the repository and the location of the pipeline script which is usually called Jenkinsfile. A simple Jenkinsfile may look like:

node ('build&&linux') {
    try {
        env.JAVA_HOME="${tool 'Managed Java 11'}"
        stage ('Prepare Workspace') {
            sh label: 'Clean build directory', script: 'rm -rf my_project/build'
            checkout scm // This fetches the code from our repository
        }
        stage ('Build project') {
            withGradle {
                sh 'cd my_project && ./gradlew --continue war check'
            }
            junit testResults: 'my_project/build/test-results/test/TEST-*.xml'
        }
        stage ('Collect artifacts') {
            archiveArtifacts(
                artifacts: 'my_project/build/libs/*.war'
            )
        }
    } catch (Exception e) {
        if (e in org.jenkinsci.plugins.workflow.steps.FlowInterruptedException) {
            currentBuild.result = 'ABORTED'
        } else {
            echo "Exception: ${e.class}, message: ${e.message}"
            currentBuild.result = 'FAILURE'
        }
    }
}

If you are running GitLab you get some nice features in combination with the Jenkins Gitlab plugin like automatic creation of builds for all your branches and merge requests if you configure the job as a multibranch pipeline.

Everything works quite well if your project resides in a single Git repository.

How to use it with git submodules

If your project uses git-submodules to connect other git repositories that are not directly part of your project the responsible line checkout scm in the Jenkinsfile does not clone or update the submodules. Unfortunately, the fix for this issue leads to a somewhat bloated checkout command as you have to copy and mention the settings which are injected by default into the parameter object of the GitSCM class and its extensions…

The simple one-liner from above becomes something like this:

checkout scm: [
    $class: 'GitSCM',
    branches: scm.branches,
    extensions: [
        [$class: 'SubmoduleOption',
        disableSubmodules: false,
        parentCredentials: false,
        recursiveSubmodules: true,
        reference: 'https://github.com/softwareschneiderei/ADS.git',
        shallow: true,
        trackingSubmodules: false]
    ],
    submoduleCfg: [],
    userRemoteConfigs: scm.userRemoteConfigs
]

After these changes projects with submodules work as expected, too.

Modern substring search

Nowadays many applications need a good search functionality. They manage large amounts of content in sometimes complex structures so looking for it manually quickly becomes unfeasible and annoying.

ElasticSearch is a powerful tool for implementing a fast and scalable search functionality for your applications. Many useful features like scoring and prefix search are available out-of-the-box.

One often requested feature needs a bit of thought and special implementation: A fulltext search for substrings.

Wildcard search

An easy way is to use an wildcard query. It allows using wildcard characters like * and ? but is not recommended due to low performance, especially if you start you search patterns with wildcards. For the sake of completeness I mention the link to the official documentation here.

Aside from performance it requires using the wildcard characters, either by the user or your code and perhaps needs to be combined with other queries like the match or term queries. Therefore I do not advise usage of wildcard queries.

Using n-grams for indexing

The trick here is to break up the tokens in your texts into even smaller parts – called n-grams – for indexing only. A word like “search” would be split into the following terms using 3-grams: sea, ear, arc, rch.

So if the user searches for “ear” a document/field containing “search” will be matched. You can configure the analyzer to use for individual fields an the minimum and maximum length of the n-grams to work best for your requirements.

The trick here is to use the n-gram analyzer only for indexing and not for searching because that would also break up the search term and lead to many false positives.

See this example configuration using the C# ElasticSearch API NEST:

var client = new ElasticClient(settings);
var response = client.Indices.Create("device-index", creator => creator
  .Settings(s => s
		.Setting("index.max_ngram_diff", 10)
		.Analysis(analysis => analysis
			.Analyzers(analyzers => analyzers
				.Custom("ngram_analyzer", analyzerDescriptor => analyzerDescriptor
					.Tokenizer("ngram_tokenizer")
					.Filters("lowercase")
				)
			)
			.Tokenizers(tokenizers => tokenizers
				.NGram("ngram_tokenizer", ngram => ngram
					.MinGram(3)
					.MaxGram(10)
				)
			)
		)
	)
	.Map<SearchableDevice>(device => device
		.AutoMap()
		.Properties(props => props
			.Text(t => t
				.Name(n => n.SerialNumber)
				.Analyzer("ngram_analyzer")
				.SearchAnalyzer("standard")
			)
			.Text(t => t
				.Name(n => n.InventoryNumber)
				.Analyzer("ngram_analyzer")
				.SearchAnalyzer("standard")
			)
			.Text(t => t
				.Name(n => n.Model)
				.Analyzer("ngram_analyzer")
				.SearchAnalyzer("standard")
			)
		)
	)
));

Using the wildcard field

Starting with ElasticSearch 7.9 there is a new field type called “wildcard”. Usage is in general straight forward: You simply exchange the field type “text” or “keyword” with this new type “wildcard”. ElasticSearch essentially uses n-grams in combination with a so called “binary doc value” to provide seemless performant substring search. See this official blog post for details and guidance when to prefer wildcard over the traditional field types.

Conclusion

Generally, search is hard. In the old days many may have used SQL like queries with wildcards etc. to implement search. With Lucene and ElasticSearch modern, highly scalable and performant indexing and search solutions are available for developers. Unfortunately, this great power comes with a bunch of pitfalls where you have to adapt your solution to fit you use-case.

Using credentials in scripted Jenkins pipelines

The Jenkins continuous integration (CI) server allows job configuration to be scripted and version controlled instead of being configured using the web interface. That makes is easier to migrate jobs to another environment and changes easier to trace.

Such jobs are called “pipeline jobs” and come in two flavours: declarative and scripted. We prefer scripted pipelines because they offer you the full power of the groovy language.

One common problem in CI jobs is that you need credentials to log into other systems, e.g. for storing build artifacts or deploying to some staging server.

The credentials should of course never be stored as plain text in your repository, like directly in your Jenkinsfile. Also you do not want to appear them in build logs and the like.

Solution for scripted pipelines

Fortunately there is a nice solution available in the withCredentials-step.

First you need to manage the credentials in the central Jenkins credential management. There are several credential types like username and password, api token, secret text or username and private key.

Then you can reference them in your pipeline script like below:

// stuff to build the docker images...
    stage ('Transfer release images to registry') {
       withCredentials([usernamePassword(credentialsId: 'private-artifactory', passwordVariable: 'dockerKey', usernameVariable: 'dockerUser')]) {
            // avoid using credentials in groovy string interpolation
            sh label: 'Login to docker registry', script: '''
docker login --username $dockerUser --password $dockerKey ''' + my-artifactory.intranet

            // do something while being logged in
            sh label: 'Logout from docker registry', script: '''
                docker logout my-artifactory.intranet
            '''
    }
// stuff after publishing the docker images

Note that we do not use the injected environment variables in groovy’s string interpolation as that would expose the credentials on the underlying OS as the documentation states.

Migrating from Oracle to PostgreSQL

One promise of SQL for application developers is that changing the database management system (DBMS) is not that of a big deal. Due to the many specialties and not complete standards conformance of the database vendors it can be a big task to migrate from one DBMS vendor to another.

Nevertheless, there are plenty of good reasons to do so:

  • Cost of buying, running and maintaining the DBMS
  • Limitations of the current DBMS like performance, tool support, character sets, naming, data types and sizes etc.
  • Missing features like geospatial support, clustering, replication, sharding, timeseries support and so on
  • Support or requirements on the customers or operators side

Some of our long running projects that started several years ago had the requirement to work with an Oracle DBMS, version 8i at that time. Now, more than 10 years later our customer provides and prefers to host a PostgreSQL 13 cluster. Of course she would like us to migrate our applications over to the new DBMS and eventually get rid of the Oracle installation.

Challenges for the migration

Even though PostgreSQL is supports most of SQL:2016 core and most important features of Oracle there are enough differences and subtleties that make migration non-trivial. The most obvious items to look out for are

  • different column type names
  • SQL features and syntactical differences (sequences!)
  • PL/SQL functions syntax and features

Depending on your usage of database specific features you have to assess how much work and risk is expected.

Tools and migration process

Fortunately, there is a quite mature tool that can aid you along the process called ora2pg. It has tons of options to help you customizing the migration and a quite helpful assessment of the task ahead. The migration report looks like this:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ora2Pg v21.1 - Database Migration Report
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Version Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0
Schema  NAOMI-TEST
Size    91.44 MB

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Object  Number  Invalid Estimated cost  Comments        Details
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DATABASE LINK   0       0       0.00    Database links will be exported as SQL/MED PostgreSQL's Foreign Data Wrapper (FDW) extensions using oracle_fdw.
FUNCTION        1       0       1.00    Total size of function code: 0 bytes.
GLOBAL TEMPORARY TABLE  60      0       168.00  Global temporary table are not supported by PostgreSQL and will not be exported. You will have to rewrite some application code to match the PostgreSQL temporary table behavior.  ht_my_table <--- SNIP --->.
INDEX   69      0       6.90    0 index(es) are concerned by the export, others are automatically generated and will do so on PostgreSQL. Bitmap will be exported as btree_gin index(es). Domain index are exported as b-tree but commented to be edited to mainly use FTS. Cluster, bitmap join and IOT indexes will not be exported at all. Reverse indexes are not exported too, you may use a trigram-based index (see pg_trgm) or a reverse() function based index and search. Use 'varchar_pattern_ops', 'text_pattern_ops' or 'bpchar_pattern_ops' operators in your indexes to improve search with the LIKE operator respectively into varchar, text or char columns.
JOB     0       0       0.00    Job are not exported. You may set external cron job with them.
SEQUENCE        4       0       1.00    Sequences are fully supported, but all call to sequence_name.NEXTVAL or sequence_name.CURRVAL will be transformed into NEXTVAL('sequence_name') or CURRVAL('sequence_name').
SYNONYM 0       0       0.00    SYNONYMs will be exported as views. SYNONYMs do not exists with PostgreSQL but a common workaround is to use views or set the PostgreSQL search_path in your session to access object outside the current schema.
TABLE   225     0       72.00    495 check constraint(s).       Total number of rows: 264690. Top 10 of tables sorted by number of rows:. topt has 52736 rows. po has 50830 rows. notification has 18911 rows. timeline_entry has 16556 rows. char_sample_types has 11400 rows. char_safety_aspects has 9488 rows. char_sample_props has 5358 rows. tech_spec has 4876 rows. mail_log_entry has 4778 rows. prop_data has 4358 rows. Top 10 of largest tables:.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total   359     0       248.90  248.90 cost migration units means approximatively 3 man-day(s). The migration unit was set to 5 minute(s)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Migration level : A-3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Migration levels:
    A - Migration that might be run automatically
    B - Migration with code rewrite and a human-days cost up to 5 days
    C - Migration with code rewrite and a human-days cost above 5 days
Technical levels:
    1 = trivial: no stored functions and no triggers
    2 = easy: no stored functions but with triggers, no manual rewriting
    3 = simple: stored functions and/or triggers, no manual rewriting
    4 = manual: no stored functions but with triggers or views with code rewriting
    5 = difficult: stored functions and/or triggers with code rewriting
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The tool is written in Perl, so I decided to put and run it inside Docker containers because I did not want to mess with my working machine or some VMs. To have quick turnaround times with my containers I split up the process into 3 steps:

  1. Export of the schema and data using a docker container
  2. On success copy the ora2pg project to the host
  3. Import the schema and data using another docker container

The ora2pg migration project is copied to the host machine allowing you to inspect the export and make adjustments if need be. Then you can copy it to the import container or simply bind mount the directory containing the ora2pg project.

The Dockerfile for the export image looks like this

FROM centos:7

# Prepare the system for ora2pg 
RUN yum install -y wget
RUN wget https://yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol7 -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

COPY ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN yum install -y oraclelinux-release-el7
RUN mv /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo.disabled
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-release-el7
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-basic
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-devel
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-sqlplus

RUN yum install -y perl perl-CPAN perl-DBI perl-Time-HiRes perl-YAML perl-local-lib make gcc
RUN yum install -y perl-App-cpanminus

RUN cpanm CPAN::Config
RUN cpanm CPAN::FirstTime

ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64/lib
ENV ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64

RUN perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

COPY ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz /tmp

WORKDIR /tmp
RUN tar zxf ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz && cd ora2pg-21.1 && perl Makefile.PL && make && make install

RUN mkdir -p /naomi/migration
RUN ora2pg --project_base /ora2pg --init_project my-migration
WORKDIR /ora2pg

COPY ora2pg.conf /ora2pg/my-migration/config/

CMD ora2pg -t SHOW_VERSION -c config/ora2pg.conf && ora2pg -t SHOW_TABLE -c config/ora2pg.conf\
 && ora2pg -t SHOW_REPORT --estimate_cost -c config/ora2pg.conf\
 && ./export_schema.sh && ora2pg -t INSERT -o data.sql -b ./data -c ./config/ora2pg.conf

Once the export looks good you can work on importing everything. The Dockerfile for the import image looks like this:

FROM centos:7

# Prepare the system for ora2pg 
RUN yum install -y wget
RUN wget https://yum.oracle.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle-ol7 -O /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle

COPY ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
RUN yum install -y oraclelinux-release-el7
RUN mv /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/ol7-temp.repo.disabled
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-release-el7
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-basic
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-devel
RUN yum install -y oracle-instantclient-sqlplus
RUN yum install -y postgresql-server

RUN yum install -y perl perl-CPAN perl-DBI perl-Time-HiRes perl-YAML perl-local-lib make gcc
RUN yum install -y perl-App-cpanminus

RUN cpanm CPAN::Config
RUN cpanm CPAN::FirstTime

ENV LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64/lib
ENV ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/21/client64

RUN perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

COPY ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz /tmp

WORKDIR /tmp
RUN tar zxf ora2pg-21.1.tar.gz && cd ora2pg-21.1 && perl Makefile.PL && make && make install

# you need to mount the project volume to /ora2pg
WORKDIR /ora2pg

CMD ./import_all.sh -d my_target_db -h $pg_host -U myuser -o myowner

Our target database runs on another host, so you need credentials to authenticate and perform all the required actions. Therefore we are the import container interactively. The PowerShell command for the import looks like this

docker run -it --rm -e pg_host=192.168.56.1 -v $PWD/ora2pg/my-migration:/ora2pg pgimport

The import script allows you to create the schema, sequences, indexes, constraints and load the data. I suggest adding the contraints after importing the data – a workflow supported by the import_all.sh script.

That way we got our Oracle database migrated into a PostgreSQL database. Unfortunately, this is only one part of the whole migration. The other part is making changes to the application code to correctly use the new database.

Windows 10 quality of life features

Starting with Windows 10 Microsoft switched from big-bang releases of its operating system to so called rolling releases: They release new features and improvements in regular intervals – once or twice a year – without changing the product name.

The great thing is that users get the improvements made by Microsofts engineers much sooner than in the past where you had to wait several years for a big “service pack” to arrive or even a new major release of Windows like 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and finally 10 (I am leaving out the dark times on purpose 😉).

The bad thing is that it is harder to see what version or release you are running. Of course there is a (less visible) name for every Windows release. This version or codename sometimes gets mentioned on support pages or in blog posts because functionality of Window 10 can change significantly between these rolling feature updates. And sometimes you may run some app or tool that tells you need Windows 10 2004 or higher.

What version of Window 10 am I running?

I know of two simple ways to find out what version of Windows 10 you are running currently:

  1. Running the tool winver
  2. Opening the Settings -> System -> Info page

Why does it matter?

Another downside is that users often are not aware of new stuff added to their operating system. And Microsoft does an awful job promoting the changes and improvements!

Of course there are announcements about the big things after upgrading your operating system to the next feature level. And Microsoft uses these for marketing its own apps and services. They slap you their new Edge-browser in the face on every occasion and try to trick you in creating a Microsoft account. It is absolutely not obvious how to use Windows without a Microsoft account like the decades before. Skip the process here, continue without and risk your live…

On the other hand they really improve their software and slowly but steadily round the rough edges of their system. The UIs for environment variables are finally quite usable.

Now back to the main theme of the post: There are some hidden gems built into Windows 10 that I learned of only lately and I think are vastly underadvertised – unlike Microsoft’s marketing of their big products.

Built-in screen recorder

Ok, many gamers may know it because it Windows briefly displays the shortcut Win+G when starting a game. It is not only usable for games but you can record any window, capture application sounds and record your voice. You can easily record your own screencasts and video tutorials using this built-in solution.

Built-in clipboard manager

How often did you wish to be able copy multiple items and choose one of the last few copied elements when pasting? While such clipboard managers have been around for a long time and sometimes provide tons of useful features Windows 10 has a simple one built-in. Just press Win+V instead of Ctrl+V to paste your clipboard entry and you will get a list of the copied items to choose from.

Built-in screenshot/snipping tool

Many people may know the old way of making screenshots using the oddly labeled PrtScr-key (sometimes also PrntScrn or simply Print), opening a painting application like MS paint and pasting the image using Ctrl+V. Well, Microsoft improved this workflow a lot by including a snipping tool that you can activate using Win+Shift+S. This tool lets you select either a rectangular or free-form region, a window or an entire screen to capture. After doing that you get a notification allowing you to make modifications to the capture and save it to disk.

On-screen emoji-keyboard

Just a little helper in these modern social media times is the on-screen emoji-keyboard. Using Win+. you can activate it, browse tons of common emojis and enter them into you messages and texts 🐱‍🏍🤘.

Windows Terminal

Ok, this last but not least one is not (yet) built-in and mostly interesting for developers and power users. Nevertheless, I think it is noteworthy that Microsoft finally built a capable terminal application with modern features like multiple tabs, full unicode and font support, customizable background with blur and the ability to host different shells like the old and trusted command prompt CMD, the newer PowerShell and WSL. You can find it in the Microsoft store for free.

Conclusion

While releases of Windows 10 are more subtle than past new Windows releases many things change both under the hood and user visible. Every once in a while something you missed for years or installed third-party tools for may be added without you knowing. That’s another reason why talking to colleagues and friends and practices like pair-programming and brown-bag meetings are so valuable for sharing knowledge and experience.

I hope there is something for you in my findings of hidden windows gems. If you have some Windows 10 features you discovered and really like, feel free to leave them in the comments. I will gladly try them out!

Using (elastic)search with .NET Core

Many modern applications require powerful search mechanisms to become useful and make their users more productive. That is in large part due to the amount of data available to work with. Thankfully there are already powerful tools to index your data and make it searchable.

One of the most well known state-of-the-art solutions is ElasticSearch and it has an API to be used from .NET called NEST. While the documentation is ok I want to give a quick rundown on how to add searching capabilities to your .NET Core application. Some ideas are borrowed from the great post “Using Elasticsearch with ASP.NET Core and Docker“.

Getting ElasticSearch running

The easiest way to get up and running with elasicsearch is to use their docker images and just run the container on your development machine. I like to a docker compose file like the following to get elasticsearch and its tooling application kibana up and running fast:

version: '3.8'
services:
    elasticsearch:
        image: docker.elastic.co/elasticsearch/elasticsearch:7.8.0
        container_name: elastic
        environment:
            - node.name=elastic
            - cluster.initial_master_nodes=elastic
        ports:
            - "9200:9200"
            - "9300:9300"
        volumes:
            - type: bind
              source: ./esdata
              target: /usr/share/elasticsearch/data
        networks:
            - esnetwork
    kibana:
        image: docker.elastic.co/kibana/kibana:7.8.0
        ports:
            - "5601:5601"
        networks:
            - esnetwork
        depends_on:
            - elasticsearch
volumes:
    esdata:
networks:
    esnetwork:
        driver: bridge

After you run it with docker compose you can talk to the search service on http://localhost:9200/ and the kibana management GUI on http://localhost:5601/. On the Kibana UI especially the Dev Tools and its console are interesting for experimenting with search queries.

Access ElasticSearch from your .NET Core app

I find it quite elegant to write a extension method for the IServiceCollection to configure the ElasticClient and register it as a Singleton to the dependency injection framework of .NET Core like so

    public static class ElasticSearchExtension
    {
        public static void AddElasticsearch(
            this IServiceCollection services, IConfiguration configuration)
        {
            var url = configuration["elasticsearch:url"];
            var settings = new ConnectionSettings(new Uri(url))
                    .DefaultMappingFor<SearchableDevice>(deviceMapping => deviceMapping
                        .IndexName("devices")
                        .IdProperty(dev => dev.Id)
                    )
                ;
            var client = new ElasticClient(settings);
            var response = client.Indices.Create("devices", creator => creator
                .Map<SearchableDevice>(device => device
                    .AutoMap()
                )
            );
            // maybe check response to be safe...
            services.AddSingleton<IElasticClient>(client);
        }
    }

The configuration block looks like following

  "ElasticSearch": {
    "url": "http://localhost:9200/"
  },

and allows for future extension.

Our search service has to be registered in Startup of course:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    ...
    services.AddElasticsearch(Configuration);
}

Indexing our objects

In the above example we built a SearchableDevice class whose public properties are going to be indexed by ElasticSearch. The API allows for a much more fined grained control about what and how to index but we want to keep things simple without having to worry about excluding Properties and so on. If you have set it up that way indexing a SearchableDevice is merely one simple call:

// SearchClient is the injected IElasticClient
// mySearchableDevice is an instance of SearchableDevice
SearchClient.IndexDocument(mySearchableDevice);

Searching for objects

When developing a search query I like to try it in the Kibana Dev Tools and then transform it to a NEST call. A simple query to look in all device properties if they start with “needle” looks like this:

{
  "query": {
    "multi_match": {
      "type": "phrase_prefix", 
      "fields": ["*"],
      "query": "needle"
    }
  }
}

The nice thing about the Kibana Dev Tools console is that it can display and complete the possible values for fields like “type” in your multi_match query.

That search query can then be translated to a NEST call in a straightforward way and looks this way:

var response = SearchClient.Search<SearchableDevice>(sd => sd
    .Query(q => q
        .MultiMatch(query => query
            .Type(TextQueryType.PhrasePrefix)
            .Fields("*")
            .Query("needle")
        )
    )
);

The search response contains the hits with their source objects and some metadata like the score and result count.

Bear in mind that ElasticSearch only returns the first/best 10 matches by default, so specifying the result size often might be closer to what you want.

Wrapping it up

Getting started with ElasticSearch in .NET Core does not require too much boiler plate an setup work if you use tools like docker and the NEST library. Making it usable and tuning the indexing and querying may require a lot of work to achieve the best results. On the other hand smaller applications can start-off with a simple search setup like shown above and simply evolve it when need be.

Docker runtime breaking your container

Docker (or container technology in general) is a great tool to clearly separate the concerns of developers and operations. We use it to simplify various tasks like building projects, packaging them for different platforms and deployment of our software onto the target machines like staging and production servers. All the specifics of the projects are contained and version controlled using the Dockerfiles and compose files.

Our operations only needs to provide some infrastructure able to build container images and run them. This works great most of the time and removes a lot of the friction between developers and operation where in the past snowflaky-servers needed to be setup and maintained. Developers often had to ask for specific setups and environments because each project had their own needs. That is all gone with this great container technology. Brave new world. Except when it suddenly does not work anymore.

Help, my deployment container stopped working!

As mentioned above we use docker to deploy our software to the target machines. These machines are often part of a corporate network protected by firewalls and only accessible using VPN. I already talked about how to use openvpn in a docker container for deployment. So the other day I was making a release of one of my long-running projects and pressing the deploy button for that project on our jenkins continuous integration server.

But instead of just leaning back, relaxing and watching the magic work the deployment failed and the red light lit up! A look into the job output showed that the connection to the target machine was refused. A quick check from the developer machine showed no problem on the receiving side. VPN, target machine and everything was up and running as usual.

After a quick manual deployment performed with care and administrator hat I went on an investigation journey…

What was going on?

The deployment job did not change for several months, the container image did not change and the rest of the infrastructure was working as expected. After more digging, debugging narrowing down the problem I found out, that openvpn did not work in the container anymore because of some strange permission denied error:

Tue May 19 15:24:14 2020 /sbin/ip addr add dev tap0 1xx.xxx.xxx.xxx/22 broadcast 1xx.xxx.xxx.xxx
Tue May 19 15:24:14 2020 /sbin/ip -6 addr add 2axx:1xxx:4:5xxx:9xx:5xxx:5xxx:4xxx/64 dev tap0
RTNETLINK answers: Permission denied
Tue May 19 15:24:14 2020 Linux ip -6 addr add failed: external program exited with error status: 2
Tue May 19 15:24:14 2020 Exiting due to fatal error

This hot trace made it easy to google for and revealed following issue on github: https://github.com/dperson/openvpn-client/issues/75. The cause of all the trouble was changed behaviour of the docker runtime. Our automatic updates had run over the weekend and actually installed a new package version of the docker runtime (see exerpt from apt history log):

containerd.io:amd64 (1.2.13-1, 1.2.13-2)

This subtle change broke my container! After some sacrifices to the whale gods I went on to implement the fix. Fortunately there is an easy way to get it working like before. You just have to pass following command line switch to docker run and everything works as expected:

--sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=0

As nice as containers are for abstracting away hardware, operating systems and other environment details sometimes the container runtime shines through. It is just a shame that such things happen on minor releases or package release upgrades…