Object slicing with Grails and GORM

Some may know the problem called object slicing when passing or assigning polymorphic objects by value in C++. The issue is not limited to C++ as we experienced recently in one of our web application based on Grails. If you are curious just stay awhile and listen…

Our setting

Some of our domain entities use inheritance and their containing entities determine what to do using some properties. You may call that bad design but for now let us take it as it is and show some code to clarify the situation:

class Container {
  private A a

  def doSomething() {
    if (hasActuallyB()) {
      return a.bMethod()
    return a.something()

class A {

  def something() {
    return 'Something A does'

class B extends A {

  def bMethod() {
    return 'Something only B can do'

class ContainerController {

  def save = {
    new Container(b: new B()).save()

  def show = {
    def container = Container.get(params.id)
    [result: container.doSomething()]

Such code worked for us without problems in until we upgraded to Grails 3. Suddenly we got exceptions like:

2019-02-18 17:03:43.370 ERROR --- [nio-8080-exec-1] o.g.web.errors.GrailsExceptionResolver   : MissingMethodException occurred when processing request: [GET] /container/show
No signature of method: A.bMethod() is applicable for argument types: () values: []. Stacktrace follows:

Caused by: groovy.lang.MissingMethodException: No signature of method: A.bMethod() is applicable for argument types: () values: []
at Container.doSomething(Container.groovy:123)

Debugging showed our assumptions and checks were still true and the Container member was saved correctly as a B. Still the groovy method call using duck typing did not work…

What is happening here?

Since the domain entities are persistent objects mapped by GORM and (in our case) Hibernate they do not always behave like your average POGO (plain old groovy object). They may in reality be Javassist proxy instances when fetched from the database. These proxies are set up to respond to the declared type and not the actual type of the member! Clearly, an A does not respond to the bMethod().

A workaround

Ok, the class hierarchy is not that great but we cannot rewrite everything. So what now?

Fortunately there is a workaround: You can explicitly unwrap the proxy object using GrailsHibernateUtil.unwrapIfProxy() and you have a real instance of B and your groovy duck typing and polymorphic calls work as expected again.

Testing Java with Grails 2.2

We have some projects that consist of both java and groovy classes. If you don’t pay attention, you can have a nice WTF moment.

Let us look at the following fictive example. You want to test a static method of a java class “BlogAction”. This method should tell you whether a user can trigger a delete action depending on a configuration property.

The classes under test:

public class BlogAction {
    public static boolean isDeletePossible() {
        return ConfigurationOption.allowsDeletion();
class ConfigurationOption {
    static boolean allowsDeletion() {
        // code of the Option class omitted, here it always returns false
        return Option.isEnabled('userCanDelete');

In our test we mock the method of ConfigurationOption to return some special value and test for it:

class BlogActionTest {
    void postCanBeDeletedWhenOptionIsSet() {
        def option = mockFor(ConfigurationOption)
        option.demand.static.allowsDeletion(0..(Integer.MAX_VALUE-1)) { -> true }


As result, the test runner greets us with a nice message:

    at junit.framework.Assert.fail(Assert.java:48)
    at junit.framework.Assert.assertTrue(Assert.java:20)
    at junit.framework.Assert.assertTrue(Assert.java:27)
    at junit.framework.Assert$assertTrue.callStatic(Unknown Source)
    at BlogActionTest.postCanBeDeletedWhenOptionIsSet(BlogActionTest.groovy:21)

Why? There is not much code to mock, what is missing? An additional assert statement adds clarity:


The static method still returns false! The metaclass “magic” provided by mockFor() is not used by my java class. BlogAction simply ignores it and calls the allowsDeletion method directly. But there is a solution: we can mock the call to the “Option” class.

void postCanBeDeletedWhenOptionIsSet() {
    def option = mockFor(Option)
    option.demand.static.isEnabled(0..(Integer.MAX_VALUE-1)) { String propertyName -> true }


Lessons learned: The more happens behind the scenes, the more important becomes the context of execution.

Grails: The good, the bad, the ugly

(Opinion!) After 3 years of Grails development it is time to take a step back and look how well we went.

After 3 years of Grails development it is time to take a step back and look how well we went.
(Info: we made several Grails apps ranging from small (<15 domain classes) to medium sized (50-70 domain classes) using front ends like Flex/Flash and AJAX)

The good parts

Always start with praise. So I tell you what in my opinion was and is good about developing in Groovy and Grails.

Groovy is Java with sugar

The Groovy syntax and the type system are so close to Java, so that when you come from a Java background you feel right at home.

Standard web stack

If you are accustomed to standard technologies like Spring and Hibernate you see Grails as a vacation.

Sensible defaults aka Convention over configuration

Many of the configuration options are filled with sensible defaults.

Fast start

You get from 0 to 100 in almost no time.

The bad things

Things which are not easily avoided.

Bugs, bugs, bugs

Grails has many, many bugs, unfortunately even in such fundamental things such as data binding and validation. A comment from a previous blog post: “To me, developing with Grails always felt like walking on eggs.”


Some bugs sneak back in again or are even reopened. Note that this is not the same as bugs, bugs, bugs because fixed bugs should be secured by a test.

Leaky abstractions

You have to know the underlying technologies especially Hibernate and Spring to get a foot on the ground. The GORM layer inherits all the complexity from Hibernate.

Slow integration tests

The ramp up time is 45 s on a decent build/development machine and then the first test hasn’t even started.

Uses the Java way of solving problems

Got a problem? There’s a framework for that!

Abandoned or prototype like plugins

Take a look at the list of plugins like Autobase, Flex.

Problems with incremental compiling

Don’t know where the real cause is buried: but using IntelliJ for developing Grails projects results in comments like:
Not working? Have you cleaned, invalidated your caches, rebuilt your project, deleted the .grails directory?

The ugly things

Things which are easily avoided or just a minor issue.

Groovys use of == and equals

Inherited from Java and made even worse: compare two numbers or a String and a GString

Groovys definition for the boolean truth

0, [], “”, null, false are all false

Groovys use of the NullObject and the plus operator

Puzzler: what is null + null ?

Uses unsupported/discontinued technologies

Hibernates SchemaExport comes to mind.

Mix of technology and intention

hasMany, hasOne, belongsTo have not only an intention revealing function but also determine how cascading works and the schema is generated.

Summary, opinionated

Grails has deficits and is bug ridden. But this will be better in the future (hopefully).
When you compare Grails with standard web stacks in the Java world you can gain a lot from it.
So if you want to know if you should use Grails in your next project ask yourself:

  • do you have or want to use Spring and Hibernate?
  • can you live without static typing? (remember: with freedom comes responsibility)
  • are you ready to work around or even fix an issue or bug?
  • is Java your home?

If you can answer all those questions with Yes, then Grails is for you. But beware: no silver bullets!

Groovy isn’t a superset of Java

Groovy is Java with sugar, right?

Coming from Java to Groovy and seeing that Groovy looks like Java with sugar, you are tempted to write code like this:

  private String take(List list) {
    return 'a list'

  private String take(String s) {
    return 'a string'

But when you call this method take with null you get strange results:

  public void testDispatch() {
    String s = null
    assertEquals('a string', take(s)) // fails!

It fails because Groovy does not use the declared types. Since it is a dynamic typed language it uses the runtime type which is NullObject and calls the first found method!
So when using your old Java style to write code in Groovy beware that you are writing in a dynamic environment!
Lesson learned: learn the language, don’t assume it behaves in the same way like a language you know even when the syntax looks (almost) the same.

GORM Gotchas: Validation and hasMany

Using validation on the end of hasMany associations yields unexpected results.

The excellent GORM Gotchas Series inspired me to write about a gotcha I found recently.
You have a domain class Container which contains elements:

class Container {
  static hasMany = [elements:Element]

  List<Element> elements

and the element has a constraint:

class Element {
  static belongsTo = [container:Container]

  static constraints = {
    email(email: true)

  String email

When you try to save a container with more than one element that fails validation, only the first error appears:

Container c = new Container()
c.addToElements(new Element(email: "a"))
c.addToElements(new Element(email: "b"))
assertEquals(2, c.errors.allErrors.size()) // fails, only one error is recorded!

The solution described in the docs coined with In some situations (unusual situations)) is to use a custom validator in the container class:

class Container {

  static constraints = {
      elements(validator: { List val, Container obj ->
          val.each {Element element ->
            if(! element.validate()) {
              element.errors.allErrors.each { error->
          return true

  static hasMany = [elements:Element]

  List<Element> elements

== isn’t equals, or is it?

Beware of the subtle differences of == and equals in Java and Groovy.

== and equals behave different in Java (and Groovy). You all know the subtle difference when it comes to comparing strings. equals is recommended in Java, == works in Groovy, too. So you could think that using equals is always the better option… think again!
Take a look at the following Groovy code:

  String test = "Test"
  assertTrue("Test" == test) // true!
  assertTrue("Test" == "${test}") // true!
  assertTrue("Test".equals("${test}")) // false?!

The same happens with numbers:

  assertTrue(1L == 1) // true!
  assertTrue(1L.equals(1)) // false?!

A look at the API description of equals shows the underlying cause (taken from the Integer class):

Compares this object to the specified object. The result is true if and only if the argument is not null and is an Integer object that contains the same int value as this object.

equals follows the contract or best practice (see Effective Java) that the compared objects must be of the same class. So comparing different types via equals always results in false. You can convert both arguments to the same type beforehand to ensure that you get the expected behavior: the comparison of values. So next time when you compare two values think of the types or convert both values to the same type.

Find the bug: Groovy and autogenerated equals

Every program has bugs. Even autogenerated code from IDEs. Can you spot this one?

Take this simple Groovy class:

public class TestClass {
    String s

Hitting ‘autogenerate equals and hashCode’ a popular IDE generates the following code:

public class TestClass {

    String s

    boolean equals(o) {
        if (this.is(o)) return true;

        if (!o || getClass() != o.class) return false;

        TestClass testClass = (TestClass) o;

        if (s ? !s.equals(testClass.s) : testClass.s != null) return false;

        return true;

    int hashCode() {
        return (s ? s.hashCode() : 0);

At first this looks unusual but ok, but taking a closer look there is a bug in there, can you spot it? And even better: write a test for it?

Lessons learned:

  • If something looks suspicious write a test for it.
  • Question your assumptions. There is no assumption which is safe from be in question.
  • Don’t try to be too clever.

Small gaps in the grails docs

Just for reference, if you come across one of the following problems:

Validation only datasource

Looking at the options of dbCreate in Datasource.groovy I only found 3 values: create-drop, create or update. But there is a fourth one: validate!
This one helps a lot when you use schema generation with Autobase or doing your schema updates external.


Controller.redirect has two options for passing an id to the action id and params, but if you specify both which one will be used?

controller.redirect(id:1, params:[id:2])

Trying this out I found the id supersedes the params.id.

Thanks to Burt and Alvaro for their hints. I submitted a JIRA issue

Using Flying Saucer PDF offline

Flying saucer is a nice tool for quick PDF generation from a (X)HTML page. Everything worked fine when we tested it at home but when we had a demo at a client’s site, no PDF could be generated. The problem was caused by a little snippet in the header of the HTML:

"-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

The DTD declaration! So we took a look at the flying saucer issue database and found someone who had the same problem.
But another solution is even simpler:
Xerces has a default setting which tells the parser to load external dtds.
Turning this off solved our offline problems:

  DocumentBuilderFactory builderFactory =