The Pure Fabrication Tax

Last week, I attended the Maexle event of the C++ user group in Karlsruhe. The Maexle event is basically a programming contest where your program plays the Mia dice game against other programs. You have to implement a simple network protocol to join games, announce rolls and call bluffs. Your program earns points for every game it has participated and not lost. So there is a strong emphasis on starting early and staying in the game, even if your program doesn’t perform the best.

Since it was an event of the C++ user group, the programming language to be used was C++. I’m certainly no C++ hero and knew I couldn’t compete, so I joined the fun with an espionage role and programmed an observing bot that doesn’t play, but gathers data on the players. I chose Java for the task. My observer was online after two minutes, the first real player joined the server after 20 minutes. It turned out to be written in Python. The first real C++ bot was online after 35 minutes, the last one played its first round after two hours.

I listened closely to the problems the teams around me tackled and noticed something strange: Nobody talked about the actual game (Maexle/Mia). Every task was a technical one. Let’s talk about why that’s a problem.

Three Definitions

Before I dive into the subject, I want to define some terms that I’ll use to help you understand my point. It’s entirely possible to look at the story above and see a bunch of engineers having fun with some engineering tasks.

  • First, I value the economics of my customer. In this case, the customer is a lonely server on the LAN that wants to host some games of Maexle for bots. Like, lots of games. Thousands of games. The customer gives points for early market entry, so time to market is an economic factor (or a key performance indicator, some might say). You can roughly say that being online early means you can make bucks longer. The second key performance indicator is uptime. You want to stay in the game as long as you don’t lose all the time. There are some more KPI, but the two I’ve listed should have a major impact in your programming approach – if you value the economics.
  • Second, I don’t care about tools. A programming language is a tool. A compiler is a tool. Your IDE or text editor is a tool. Use your preferred tooling as long as it suits your needs. That means explicitely as long as it doesn’t actively work against your other values like the customer’s economics. This blog post is definitely not about Java or Python being “better” or “better suited” than C++. They aren’t. The first two bots (observer and player) were programmed by participants that had prior experience with the event. It wasn’t the tool that made them fast, it was the absence of rookie errors in the domain and its technical structure.
  • Third, I will explain my point with the concept of “pure fabrication. Pure fabrication is everything that is not specified by the customer, but necessary to fulfill the specification. It’s the code you write because your customer wants to persist some data. He never ordered you to write SQL statements or “open a connection to the database”, maybe he didn’t even know what a database was. Your customer wanted the data stored somehow. The code that enables you to actually program the storage is “pure fabrication” in terms of the domain. Think of it as a scaffolding holding your domain code in place. If you hire a painter to color your house, he will scaffold the walls to reach every spot with ease. You didn’t hire him to set those structures up, they are just necessary for the task. The difference to most of our code is that the painter removes the scaffolding afterwards.

Pure Fabrication vs. Domain

So, if I would have been a customer on the Maexle event, paying for a competitive Maexle bot, I would be very surprised about the actual construction process. Up to two hours into a three-hours event, my programmer would solve apparently hard and important problems, but not my problems. In fact, I wouldn’t even understand the relation between the attempted problems and my required solution. And I would have to have blind faith for more than half my money that something useable will come out of this.

This is the effect of too much pure fabrication in the programming approach. I’m all for solving hard programming problems, but I’m not interested in solving them over and over again. After some iterations, they become solved problems or, essentially, tools. And I don’t care about tools as long as they get their job done. If your domain problem requires a better tool, then we can put the programming problem on our todo list again. Otherwise, we are not valueing our customer’s economics, we are showing off to our peers.

If you program a simple game of Maexle with a heavy emphasis on time to market and even after the initial ramp up aren’t able to reason about your code using language from the domain (like game, dice, roll, bluff, double and, of course, mia), you are staying in pure fabrication land. That’s the level of programming where it matters if you used an integer or freed that memory. That’s when you pay the Pure Fabrication Tax to the fullest. Because your code now does something valueable in the domain, but the distance between your customer’s language and your code’s language is an hindrance. And this distance will demand its tax with every new feature, every change request and every bug.

Bugs are another area where the distance is measureable. If you can’t explain your bugs to the customer, you’ve made them in the pure fabrication part of your code. If you can never explain your bugs, your domain code is hidden between lines and lines of source code with lots of special characters, brackets and magic numbers. Just imagine your hired painter tries to tell you why your house is now pink instead of white or yellow: “It was a small mishap in the way we constructed the scaffolding, we used an E5 steel beam instead of a rail clamp and forgot to perform a hammer check on it”. The last part is totally made up, but I’m sure that’s how we sound for non-programmers.

Exemptions from the Tax?

What solution would I suggest? I don’t think there is a definite solution to the problem. You can’t go full Domain Driven Design on a three-hour Maexle event. By the time you’ve built your fancy Domain Specific Language to write code with the customer besides you, everybody else has gathered their game points and gone home. If you switch to a language that has a string tokenizer in its standard library, you can speed up your programming, but maybe just produce a bigger heap of slightly less low-leveled pure fabrication code.

I don’t want to advocate a solution. My attempt is to highlight the problem: The Pure Fabrication Tax. Given the right (or wrong) amount of extrinsic (or intrinsic) motivation, we are able to produce a mess in just a few hours without really connecting to the domain we produce the mess for. If we didn’t program a Maexle bot that night, but a poker bot or a chat bot, most if not all of the problems and bugs would have been the same. This is not a domain-specific problem. It’s our problem. We probably just like to pay the tax.

What are your thoughts on the Pure Fabrication Tax? Can you see it? Do you have an idea for a solution approach? Leave your comment below!


And to counter everybody who thinks I’m just bashing the other participants on the event: I was the first one online on the server, with a task that requires virtually no effort and doesn’t even participate directly in the competition, with tools that solved nearly all my pure fabrication problems and still managed to create a program that contained less than five domain terms and was useless for its intended purpose. I said I value the economics of my customer (even if there was none), so I know that I failed hardest on the event. And I had prior knowledge. There was just nobody to compare my mess to.

A small example of domain analysis

One thing I’ve learned a lot about in recent years is domain analysis and domain modeling. Every once in a while, an isolated piece of code or a separable concept shows me just how much I’ve missed out all the years before. A few weeks ago, I came across such an example and want to share the experience and insight. It’s a story about domain exploration with heightened degree of difficulty – another programmer had analyzed it before and written code that I should replace. But first, let’s talk about the domain.

The domain

04250The project consisted of a machine control software that receives commands and alters the state of a complex electronic circuitry accordingly. The circuitry consists of several digital-to-analog converters (DAC), among other parts. We will concentrate on the DACs in this story. In case you don’t know what a DAC is, let me explain. Imagine a little integrated circuit (IC), the black bug-like electronic parts on a circuit board. On one side, you provide it a digital number in binary representation and on the other side, you’ll get an analog voltage that represents your number. Let’s say you drive a 8-bit DAC and give it a digital zero, the output will be zero volt. If you give the same DAC the number 255, it will output the maximum possible voltage. This voltage is given by the “reference voltage” pin and is usually tied to 5 V in traditional TTL logic circuits. If you drive a 12-bit DAC, the zero will still yield 0 V, while the 255 will now only yield about 0,3 V because the maximum digital number is now 4095. So the resolution of a DAC, given in bits, is a big deal for the driver.

DAC0800How exactly you have to provide that digital number, what additional signals need to be set or cleared to really get the analog voltage is up to the specific type of DAC. So this is the part of behaviour that should be encapsulated inside a DAC class. The rest of the software should only be able to change the digital number using a method on a particular DAC object. That’s our modeling task.

The original implementation

My job was not to develop the machine control software from scratch, but re-engineer it from existing sources. The code is written in plain C by an electronics technician, and it really shows. For our DAC driver, there was a function that took one argument – an integer value that will be written to the DAC. If the client code was lazy enough to not check the bounds of the DAC, you would see all kinds of overflow effects. It worked, but only if the client code knew about the resolution of the DAC and checked the bounds. One task the machine control software needed to do was to translate the command parameters that were given in millivolts to the correct integer number to feed it into the DAC and receive the desired millivolts at the analog output pin. This calculation, albeit not very complicated, was duplicated all over the place.

writeDAC(int value);

My original translation

One primary aspect when doing re-engineering work is not to assume too much and don’t change too many places at once. So my first translation was a method on the DAC objects requiring the exact integer value that should be written. The method would internally check for the valid value range because the object knows about the DAC resolution, while the client code should subsequently lose this knowledge. The original code translated nicely to this new structure and worked correctly, but I wasn’t happy with it. To provide the correct integer value, the client code needs to know about the DAC resolution and perform the calculation from millivolts to DAC value. Even if you centralize the calculation, there are still calls from everywhere to it.

dac.write(int value);

My first relevation

When I finally had translated all existing code, I knew that every single call to the DAC got their parameter in millivolts, but needed to set the DAC integer. Now I knew that the client code never cared about DAC integers at all, it cared about millivolts. If you find such a revelation, act on it – even just to see where it might lead you to. I acted and replaced the integer parameter of the write method on the DAC object with a voltage parameter. I created the Voltage domain type and had it expose factory methods to be easily created from millivolts that were represented by integers in the commands that the machine control software received. Now the client code only needed to create a Voltage object and pass it to the DAC to have that voltage show up at the analog output pin. The whole calculation and checking part happened inside the DAC object, where it belongs.

dac.write(Voltage required);

This version of the code was easy to read, easy to reason about and worked like a charm. It went into production and could be the end of the story.

The second insight

But the customer had other plans. He replaced parts of the original circuitry and upgraded most of the DACs on the way. Now there was only one type of DAC, but with additional amplifier functionality for some output pins (a typical DAC has several output pins that can be controlled by a pin address that is provided alongside the digital number). The code needed to drive the DACs, that were bound to 5 V reference voltage, but some channels would be amplified to double the voltage, providing a voltage range from 0 V to 10 V. If you want to set one of those channels to 5 V output voltage, you need to write half the maximum number to it. If the DAC has 12-bit resolution, you need to write 2047 (or 2048, depending on your rounding strategy) to it. Writing 4095 would yield 10 V on those channels.

Because the amplification isn’t part of the DAC itself, the DAC code shouldn’t know about it. This knowledge should be placed in a wrapper layer around the DAC objects, taking the voltage parameters from the client code and changing it according to the amplification of the channel. The client code would want to write 10 V, pass it to the wrapper layer that knows about the amplification and reduces it to 5 V, passing this to the DAC object that transforms it to the maximum reference voltage (5 V) that subsequently gets amplified to 10 V. This sounded so weird that I decided to review my domain analysis.

It dawned on me that the DAC domain never really cared about millivolts or voltages. Sure, the output will be a specific voltage, but it will be relative to your input in relation to the maximum value. The output voltage has the same percentage of the maximum value as the input value. It’s all about ratios. The DAC should always demand a percentage from the client code, not a voltage. This way, you can actually give it the ratio of anything and it will express this ratio as a voltage compared to the reference voltage. The DAC is defined by its core characteristics and the wrapper layer performs the translation from required voltage to percentage. In case of amplification, it is accounted for in this translation – the DAC never needs to know.

dac.write(Percentage required);

Expressiveness of the new concept

Now we can really describe in code what actually happens: A command arrives, requiring us to set a DAC channel to 8 volt. We create the voltage object for 8 volt and pass it on to the DAC wrapper layer. The layer knows about the 2x amplification and the reference voltage. It calculates that 8 volt will be 80% of the maximum DAC value (80% of 5 V being 4 V before and 8 V after amplification) and passes this information to the DAC object. The DAC object, being the only one to know its resolution, sets 0.8 * maximum_DAC_value to the required register and everything works.

The new concept of percentages decouples the voltage information from the DAC resolution information and keeps both informations where they belong. In fact, the DAC chip never really knows about the reference voltage, either – it’s the circuit around it that knows.


While it is easy to see why the first version with voltages as parameters has its charms, it isn’t modeling the reality accurately and therefor falls short when flexibility is required. The first version ties DAC resolution and reference voltage together when in fact the DAC chip only knows the resolution. You can operate the chip with any reference voltage within a valid range. By decoupling those informations and moving the knowledge about reference voltages outside the DAC object, I modeled the reality more accurate and every requirement finds its natural place. This “natural place finding” is what makes a good model useful for reasoning. In our case, the natural place for the reference voltage was outside the DAC in the wrapper layer. Finding a real name for the wrapper layer was easy, I called it “circuit board”.

Domain analysis is all about having the right abstractions for your model. Your model is suitable for your task when everything fits and falls into place nearly automatically. When names needn’t be found but kind of obtrude themselves from the real domain. The right model (for the given task) feels good and transports a lot of domain knowledge. And domain knowledge is the most treasurable knowledge for any developer.