Developing Grails Apps – Some Dark Sides

Most of the time, developing Grails apps is a nice experience. But there are also dark sides. One of which is when bugs do appear or do not appear depending on how you started your app.

Usually, I try to avoid it but this time a Disclaimer is in order: This is not a Grails rant. Most of the time developing Grails projects is fast and smooth. Using Grails brought many advantages for us. But there are also dark sides…

My main criticism is that Grails abstractions are more than leaky! In every list of examples for the definition of the term Leaky Abstraction Grails should be top. As soon as you leave the tutorial/scaffolding/helloworld level you have to know a lot about the underlying stack. And with Hibernate and Spring neither of the words small, easy and lightweight do apply.

GORM, too, is only easy to use at first sight. The very informative blog series about GORM gotchas should absolutely become part of the user guide or the refence docs.

And there are those times where it gets really unpleasant. This is e.g. when a bug does appear in your grails application running in a servlet container (packaged in a .war)  but does not appear when the application is started from within the IDE. Our last one of those was a naming conflict in a .gsp file. The controller handed a model like this to the .gsp:

return [fieldValue: 'THE_VALUE', ...]

The model entry ‘fieldValue’ was used in the .gsp to set the value of a combo box. Unfortunately, ‘fieldValue’ is also the name of a built-in Grails tag

Admittedly, ‘fieldValue’ was not the wisest choice of names and I would certainly expect to get scolded loudly by Grails for that – ideally with a nice descriptive exception. But what happend instead led to a loud scolding of Grails from us. And to some big question marks: What is the difference between executing Grails from the IDE and within a servlet container with respect to naming resolution? Why is there a difference, at all?

We had a hard time figuring out this one, not least because the error message was not very telling. And since this was not the first of those works-in-the-IDE-but-not-in-a-real-environment bugs there is always this slightly uneasy feeling…

As I said in the beginning, most of the time developing Grails applications is nice and shiny. I would not support their slogan, though. My personal search for the best web development tool is definitively not over.

How about your search?

A more elegant way to HTTP Requests in Java

The support for sending and processing HTTP requests was always very basic in the JDK. There are many, many frameworks out there for sending requests and handling or parsing the response. But IMHO two stand out: HTTPClient for sending and HTMLUnit for handling. And since HTMLUnit uses HTTPClient under the hood the two are a perfect match.

This is an example HTTP Post:

HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
PostMethod post = new PostMethod(url);
for (Entry param : params.entrySet()) {
    post.setParameter(param.key, param.value);
try {
    return client.executeMethod(post);
} finally {

and HTTP Get:

WebClient webClient = new WebClient();
return (HtmlPage) webClient.getPage(url);

Accessing the returned HTML via XPath is also very straightforward:

List roomDivs=(List)page.getByXPath("//div[contains(@class, 'room')]");
for (HtmlElement div:roomDivs) {
    new Room(this,
      ((HtmlElement) div.getByXPath(".//h2/a").get(0)).getTextContent(),

One last issue remains: HTTPClient caches its cookies but HTMLUnit creates a HTTPClient on its own. But if you override HttpWebConnection and give it your HTTPClient everything works smoothly:

public class HttpClientBackedWebConnection extends HttpWebConnection {
  private HttpClient client;

  public HttpClientBackedWebConnection(WebClient webClient,
      HttpClient client) {
    this.client = client;

  protected HttpClient getHttpClient() {
    return client;

Just set your custom webconnection on your webclient:

  new HttpClientBackedWebConnection(webClient, client)

Always be aware of the charset encoding hell

Most developers already struggled with textual data from some third party system and getting garbage special characters and the like because of wrong character encodings.  Some days ago we encountered an obscure problem when it was possible to login into one of our apps from the computer with the password database running but not from other machines using the same db.  After diving into the problem we found out that they SHA-1 hashes generated from our app were slightly different. Looking at the code revealed that platform encoding was used and that lead to different results:platform-encoding

The apps were running on Windows XP and Windows 2k3 Server respectively and you would expect that it would not make much of a difference but in fact it did!


Always specify the encoding explicitly, when exchanging character data with any other system. Here are some examples:

  • String.getBytes(“utf-8”), new Printwriter(file, “ascii”) in Java
  • HTML-Forms with attribute accept-charset="ISO-8859-1"
  • In XML headers <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-15"?>
  • In your Database and/or JDBC driver
  • In your file format documentation
  • In LaTeX documents
  • everywhere where you can provide that info easily (e.g. as a comment in a config file)

Problems with character encodings seem to appear every once in a while either as end user, when your umlauts get garbled or as a programmer that has to deal with third party input like web forms or text files.

The text file rant

After stumbling over an encoding problem *again* I thought a bit about the whole issue and some of my thought manifested in this rant about text files. I do not want to blame our computer science predecessors for inventing and using restricted charsets like ASCII or iso8859. Nobody has forseen the rapid development of computers and their worldwide adoption and use in everyday life and thus need for an extensible charset (think of the addition of new symbols like the €), let aside performance and memory considerations. The problem I see with text files is that there is no standard way to describe the used encoding. Most text files just leave it to the user to guess what the encoding might be whereas almost all binary file formats feature some kind of defined header with metadata about the content, e.g. bit depth and compression method in image files. For text files you usually have to use heuristical tools which work  more or less depending on the input.

A standardized header for text files right from the start would have helped to indicate the encoding and possibly language or encoding version information of the text and many problems we have today would not exist. The encoding attribute in the XML header or the byte order mark in UTF-8 are workarounds for the fundamental problem of a missing text file header.

Grails Web Application Security: XSS prevention

XSS (Cross Site Scripting) became a favored attack method in the last years. Several things are possible using an XSS vulnerability ranging from small annoyances to a complete desaster.
The XSS prevention cheat sheet states 6 rules to prevent XSS attacks. For a complete solution output encoding is needed in addition to input validation.
Here I take a further look on how to use the built in encoding methods in grails applications to prevent XSS.

Take 1: The global option

There exists a global option that specifies how all output is encoded when using ${}. See grails-app/conf/Config.groovy:

// The default codec used to encode data with ${}
grails.views.default.codec="html" // none, html, base64

So every input inside ${} is encoded but beware of the standard scaffolds where fieldValue is used inside ${}. Since fieldValue uses encoding you get a double escaped output – not a security problem, but the output is garbage.
This leaves the tags from the tag libraries to be reviewed for XSS vulnerability. The standard grails tags use all HTML encoding. If you use older versions than grails 1.1: beware of a bug in the renderErrors tag. Default encoding ${} does not help you when you use your custom tags. In this case you should nevertheless encode the output!
But problems arise with other tags like radioGroup like others found out.
So the global option does not result in much protection (only ${}), double escaping and problems with grails tags.

Take 2: Tainted strings

Other languages/frameworks (like Perl, Ruby, PHP,…) use a taint mode. There are some research works for Java.
Generally speaking in gsps three different outputs have to be escaped: ${}, <%%> and the ones from tags/taglibs. If a tainted String appears you can issue a warning and disallow or escape it. The problem in Java/Groovy is that Strings are value objects and since get copied in every operation so the tainted flag needs to be transferred, too. The same tainted flag must also be introduced for GStrings.
Since there isn’t any implementation or plugin for groovy/grails yet, right now you have to take the classic route:

Take 3: Test suites and reviews

Having a decent test suite in e.g. Selenium and reviewing your code for XSS vulnerabilities is still the best option in your grails apps. Maybe the tainted flags can help you in the future to spot places which you didn’t catch in a review.

P.S. A short overview for Java frameworks and their handling of XSS can be found here

Don’t trust micro versions

Normally you would think, that upgrading a third party dependency where its micro version (after the second dot, like x in 2.3.x) changes should make your software work (even) better and not break it. Sadly enough it can easily happen. Some time ago we stumbled over a subtle change in the JNDI implementation of the Jetty webserver and servlet container: In version 6.1.11 you specified (or at least could specify) JNDI resources in jetty-env.xml with URLs like jdbc/myDatabase. After the update to 6.1.12 the specified resource could not be found anymore. Digging through code changelogs and the like provided a solution that finally worked with 6.1.12: java:comp/env/jdbc/myDatabase. The bad thing is that the latter does not work with 6.1.11 so that our configuration became micro-version-dependent on Jetty.

It seems that a new feature around JETTY-725 in the update from 6.1.11 to 6.1.12 broke our software.


Always make sure that your dependencies are fixed for your software releases and test your software everytime when upgrading a dependency. Do not trust some automatic dependency update system or the version numbers of a project. In the end they are just numbers and should indicate the impact of the changes but you never can be sure the changes do not break something for you.

Enable Capture/Replay for Selenium Flex

One of the missing features of the SeleniumFlexAPI was capture/replay. So I looked into different ways to enable it:

  • Approach 1: Dispatch a DOM event and listen for it in ide-extensions.js

    Problem: Where do I include the name/id of the Flex control?
  • Approach 2: Custom events

    Problem: How do I listen to them in ide-extensions.js?

Solution: Additions to the Selenium IDE code: window.record

The solution is to add a new method to the Selenium IDE code: window.record which delegates to recorder.record. So that the Flex code can call this method directly through the ExternalInterface. The clear advantage of this technique is that there is no code pollution in your production code. But you have to change the SeleniumIDE code. There is an issue in the SeleniumIDE Jira which describes the additions, so go and vote for it!
Addtional code is also needed in the in the applicationCompleteHandler:

private function applicationCompleteHandler(event:FlexEvent):void {
private function registerListeners(subject:*):void {
  subject.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, recordClick);
  subject.addEventListener(MouseEvent.DOUBLE_CLICK, recordDoubleClick);
  subject.addEventListener(Event.ADDED, childAdded);

Bubbling events like MouseEvent.CLICK can be added here but for the non-bubbling ones you have to recursively walk the displayobject hierarchy:

public function addListenerRecursive(root:*):void {
  for(var i:int = 0; i < root.numChildren; i++) {
    try {
      var child:Object = root.getChildAt(i);
      if (isMenuBar(child)) {
        child.removeEventListener(MenuEvent.ITEM_CLICK, recordMenuItemClick);
        child.addEventListener(MenuEvent.ITEM_CLICK, recordMenuItemClick);
      if (isTextControl(child)) {
        child.removeEventListener(Event.CHANGE, recordTextChange);
        child.addEventListener(Event.CHANGE, recordTextChange);
      if (isDataGrid(child)) {
        child.removeEventListener(DataGridEvent.ITEM_FOCUS_IN, recordItemClick);
        child.addEventListener(DataGridEvent.ITEM_FOCUS_IN, recordItemClick);
    } catch(e:Error) {}

In the event handling functions you just call the record function with the appropiate SeleniumFlex command:

private function recordClick(event:MouseEvent):void {"record", "flexClick", "name=" +, "");

Since Flex Sprites have no ids I use the name here for identifying the clicked target.
Another pitfall is when components are added dynamically (like when a Date opens, it adds a calendar view):

private function childAdded(event:Event):void {
  if (isDate( {, recordDate);, recordDate);


So finally capture/replay in SeleniumFlex becomes a reality! Nonetheless there is some work to do to support the different kinds of flex controls and Selenium commands.

The perils of \u0027

Adventures (read: pitfalls) of internationalization with Struts2, concerning the principle “stacked smartness doesn’t add up”.

u0027Struts2 is a framework for web application development in Java. It’s considered mature and feature-rich and inherits the internationalization (i18n) capabilities of the Java platform. This is what you would expect. In fact, the i18n features of Struts2 are more powerful than the platform ones, but the power comes with a price.

Examples of the sunshine path

If you read a book like “Struts 2 in Action” written by Donald Brown and others, you’ll come across a chapter named “Understanding internationalization” (it’s chapter 11). You’ll get a great overview with a real-world example of what is possible (placeholder expansion, for example) and if you read a bit further, there is a word of warning:

“You might also want to further investigate the MessageFormat class of the Java platform. We saw its fundamentals in this chapter when we learned of the native Java support for parameterization of message texts and the autoformatting of date and numbers. As we indicated earlier, the MessageFormat class is much richer than we’ve had the time to demonstrate. We recommend consulting the Java documentation if you have further formatting needs as well. “

If you postpone this warning, you’re doomed. It’s not the fault of the book that their examples are the sunshine case (the best circumstances that might happen). The book tries to teach you the basics of Struts2, not its pitfalls.

A pitfall of Struts2 I18N

You will write a web application in Struts2, using the powerful built-in i18n, just to discover that some entries aren’t printed right. Let’s have an example i18n entry:

impossible.action.message=You can't do this

If you include this entry in a webpage using Struts2 i18n tags, you’ll find the apostrophe (unicode character \u0027) missing:

You cant do this

What happened? You didn’t read all about MessageFormat. The apostrophe is a special character for the MessageFormat parser, indicating regions of non-interpreted text (Quoted Strings). As there is only one apostrophe in our example, it just gets omitted and ignored. If there were two of them, both would be omitted and all expansion effort between them would be ceased.

How to overcome the pitfall

You’ll need to escape the apostrophe to have it show up. Here’s the paragraph of the MessageFormat APIDoc:

Within a String, "''" represents a single quote. A QuotedString can contain arbitrary characters except single quotes; the surrounding single quotes are removed. An UnquotedString can contain arbitrary characters except single quotes and left curly brackets. Thus, a string that should result in the formatted message “‘{0}'” can be written as "'''{'0}''" or "'''{0}'''".

That’s bad news. You have to tell your translators to double-type their apostrophes, else they won’t show up. But only the ones represented by \u0027, not the specialized ones of the higher unicode regions like “grave accent”  or “acute accent”. If you already have a large amount of translations, you need to check every apostrophe if it was meant to be printed or to control the MessageFormat parser.

The underlying principle

This unexpected behaviour of an otherwise powerful functionality is a common sign of a principle I call “stacked smartness doesn’t add up”. I will blog about the principle in the near future, so here’s just a short description: A powerful (smart) behaviour makes sense in the original use case, but when (re-)used in another layer of functionality, it becomes a burden, because strange side-effects need to be taken care of.

How to find the HTML Entity you look for

As a webdeveloper have you ever wondered how a special character has to be encoded as a html entity? There is a nice little tool available online that will answer your call for help.EntityLook for 'b' What makes the tool really rock is the simplicity and great incremental search. Typing in the letter ‘c’ will present you entities for “cent”, “copyright”, the greek “sigma” and mathematical entities like “superset” because the basic shape of the resulting special character is also considered. Upon entering a ‘b’ you will get the german ß as one of the results.This kind of search is almost a “do what I mean” feature and very helpful if you do not know exact substrings or meaning of your special character.

There is a Firefox-Extension and as a special goodie for our beloved Mac-users there is even a dashboard widget available that works without internet connection and is a bit more convenient to use than the web application.

Paging with different DBs

Sometimes you cannot or do not want to use an object-relational mapping tool. When not using an OR-mapper like Hibernate or Oracle Toplink you have to deal with database specifics. One common case especially for web applications is limiting the result set to a number of items that fit nicely on a web. You then often want to allow the users to navigate between these “pages” of items aka “paging”.

This type of functionality became part of SQL only as of SQL2008 in the following form:

Since most popular database management systems (DBMSes) do not yet implement this syntax you have to implement paging in propriatory ways.

My experience with an Oracle DBMS and the frustrating and comparatively long time it took to find the correct™ solution inspired me to write this post. Now I want to present you the syntax for some widely used DBMSes which we encounter frequently in our projects.

  • MySQL, H2 and PostgreSQL (< 8.4 which will also implement the SQL2008 standard) use the same syntax:
  • Oracle is where the fun begins. There is actually no easy and correct way of doing this. So you will end up with a mess like:
    SELECT col1 FROM (SELECT col1, ROWNUM r FROM (SELECT col1 FROM table ORDER BY col1)) WHERE r BETWEEN start AND end
  • DB2 AFAIK uses the syntax proposed in SQL2008 but correct me if I am wrong because we do not yet work with DB2 databases.
  • As we did not need paging with MS SQLServer as of now I did not bother to look for a solution yet. Hints are very welcome.

With all solutions the ORDER BY clause is critical because SQL does not guarantee the order of the returned rows.

Wikipedia delivers some additional and special case information but does not really explain the general, real world case the specific DBMSes.

I hope that I raised some awareness about database specifics and perhaps saved you some time trying to find a solution the problem using your favorite DBMS.

A DSL for deploying grails apps

Everytime I deploy my grails app I do the same steps over and over again:

  • get the latest build from our Hudson CI
  • extract the war file from the CI archive
  • scp the war to a gateway server
  • scp the war to the target server
  • run to shutdown the jetty
  • run to update the web app in the jetty webapps dir
  • run to start the jetty

Reading the Productive Programmer I thought: “This should be automated”. Looking at the Rails world I found a tool named Capistrano which looked like a script library for deploying Rails apps. Using builders in groovy and JSch for SSH/scp I wrote a small script to do the tedious work using a self defined DSL for deploying grails apps:

Grapes grapes = new Grapes()
def script = grapes.script {
    set gateway: "gateway-server"
    set username: "schneide"
    set password: "************"
    set project: "my_ci_project"
    set ciType: "hudson"
    set target: ""
    set ci_server: "hudson-schneide"
    set files: ["webapp.war"]

    task("deploy") {
        grab from: "ci"
        scp to: "target"
        ssh ""
        ssh ""
        ssh ""


This is far from being finished but a starting point and I think about open sourcing it. What do you think: may it help you? What are your experiences with deploying grails apps?